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Table 3 Between-group effects

From: The effect of positive psychology interventions on well-being and distress in clinical samples with psychiatric or somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome measures N comp Hedges’ g 95% CI Z Heterogeneity Fail-safe N
      Q-value I 2  
All studies post-intervention (including outliers)
 Well-being 33 0.28 0.07–0.48 2.66** 146.81*** 78.20 271
 Depression 26 0.27 0.09–0.45 2.97** 66.40*** 62.34 132
 Anxiety 14 0.47 0.23–0.71 3.78*** 36.83*** 64.71 135
 Stress 6 0.00 -0.62–0.62 0.00 25.35*** 80.28 0
All studies post-intervention (excluding outliers)a
 Well-being 29 0.24 0.13–0.35 4.16*** 35.13 20.29 137
 Depression 21 0.23 0.11–0.34 3.74*** 22.26 10.16 66
 Anxiety 13 0.36 0.20–0.53 4.24*** 16.96 29.26 81
 Stress 5 0.27 −0.19–0.73 1.16 11.02 63.69 0
Medium or high quality studies post-intervention
 Well-being 14 0.19 0.02–0.37 2.17* 21.99 40.88 17
 Depression 12 0.07 -0.19–0.32 0.53 32.43 66.08 0
 Anxiety 6 0.22 −0.05–0.49 1.57 8.39 40.39 1
 Stress 1 −0.32 − 0.85–0.21 −1.19 0.00 0.00
Studies with 8–12 week follow up (including outliers)
 Well-being 7 0.41 0.08–0.74 2.46* 19.24** 68.82 28
 Depression 5 0.21 0.05–0.37 2.53* 2.55 0.00 4
 Anxiety 4 0.35 0.12–0.59 2.91** 4.45 32.54 10
 Stress
  1. Note. Ncomp, number of comparisons, CI confidence interval. *p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001. a The effect size for well-being (g = 0.24) corresponds with a standardized mean difference Cohen’s d = 0.24 and unweighted mean r = 0.12; the effect size for depression (g = 0.23) corresponds with d = 0.23 and r = 0.11; the effect size for anxiety (g = 0.36) corresponds with d = 0.37 and r = 0.18; the effect size for stress (g = 0.27) corresponds with d = 0.28 and r = 0.14