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Table 3 Predictors of depressive symptoms (CES-D) – results of fixed effects regressions (total sample; men; women)

From: Are changes in body-mass-index associated with changes in depressive symptoms? Findings of a population-based longitudinal study among older Germans

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
Independent variables Depressive symptoms Depressive symptoms Depressive symptoms Depressive symptoms - Men Depressive symptoms - Men Depressive symptoms - Men Depressive symptoms - Women Depressive symptoms - Women Depressive symptoms - Women
Age −0.0185 −0.0172 −0.0201 0.00932 0.00943 0.00813 − 0.0504* −0.0473* − 0.0501*
  (0.0149) (0.0150) (0.0150) (0.0187) (0.0187) (0.0187) (0.0235) (0.0235) (0.0236)
Other marital statuses (Ref.: Married, living together with spouse) 0.480 0.461 0.461 0.133 0.129 0.131 0.904 0.867 0.849
  (0.441) (0.441) (0.440) (0.511) (0.511) (0.511) (0.693) (0.690) (0.689)
Retired (Ref.: Working) −0.364 −0.372 −0.386 −0.306 −0.309 − 0.315 − 0.459 −0.453 − 0.477
  (0.245) (0.244) (0.243) (0.286) (0.286) (0.287) (0.402) (0.399) (0.396)
Other: not employed 0.260 0.265 0.263 0.261 0.264 0.271 0.197 0.199 0.173
  (0.285) (0.284) (0.283) (0.372) (0.372) (0.371) (0.422) (0.420) (0.418)
Household net equivalent income −4.92e-06 −1.26e-06 4.66e-06 −3.11e-05 −3.07e-05 −2.92e-05 1.55e-05 2.33e-05 3.37e-05
  (4.47e-05) (4.44e-05) (4.39e-05) (6.36e-05) (6.37e-05) (6.38e-05) (7.20e-05) (7.17e-05) (7.05e-05)
Number of important persons in regular contact −0.0142 −0.0132 −0.0124 −0.00162 −0.00173 −0.000587 −0.0289 − 0.0241 −0.0285
  (0.0228) (0.0228) (0.0227) (0.0279) (0.0279) (0.0279) (0.0365) (0.0365) (0.0363)
Self-esteem (Rosenberg scale) −3.204*** −3.191*** −3.171*** −2.894*** −2.893*** −2.888*** − 3.465*** −3.429*** − 3.399***
  (0.273) (0.272) (0.272) (0.317) (0.317) (0.317) (0.428) (0.426) (0.424)
Total number of physical diseases 0.291*** 0.288*** 0.281*** 0.338*** 0.337*** 0.334*** 0.231** 0.231** 0.224**
  (0.0552) (0.0551) (0.0549) (0.0707) (0.0705) (0.0702) (0.0851) (0.0847) (0.0843)
BMI −0.119** −0.795*** −3.791*** −0.136* −0.262 −1.291 −0.0963+ −1.204*** −5.766***
  (0.0395) (0.237) (0.917) (0.0561) (0.257) (1.288) (0.0556) (0.327) (1.338)
BMI2   0.0111** 0.107***   0.00206 0.0342   0.0183*** 0.167***
   (0.00396) (0.0275)   (0.00397) (0.0377)   (0.00554) (0.0416)
BMI3    −0.000970***    −0.000319    −0.00154***
    (0.000261)    (0.000346)    (0.000415)
Constant 20.82*** 30.60*** 60.77*** 18.18*** 20.03*** 30.66* 23.31*** 39.04*** 84.03***
  (1.728) (3.800) (9.927) (2.240) (4.400) (14.19) (2.552) (5.252) (14.07)
R2 0.045 0.047 0.049 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.045 0.050 0.054
Observations 19,826 19,826 19,826 10,142 10,142 10,142 9684 9684 9684
Number of Individuals 12,793 12,793 12,793 6549 6549 6549 6244 6244 6244
  1. Beta-Coefficients were reported; Cluster-robust standard errors in parentheses; *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.10; listwise deletion was used. It is worth emphasizing that the Stata command for FE regression analysis include subjects with only one observation in calculating the number of observations since these subjects deliver information about the variance components, the constant, the between R2, the overall R2 as well as the correlation between individual effects constant over time and the regressors. However, it does not affect the beta-coefficients and the standard errors