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Table 1 Basic information on sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime exposure to childhood familial violence, lifetime traumatic events and mental health outcome measures due to the FGM groups

From: Psychopathological sequelae of female genital mutilation and their neuroendocrinological associations

  No FGM FGM I FGM II/III  
n = 18 n = 60 n = 87 Statistics
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age (M ± SD [CI]) 24.8 ± 4.4 [22.6, 27.0] 30.6 ± 12.8 [27.3, 33.8] 32.1 ± 13.3 [29.2, 35.0]1 F(2,160) = 2.59
Years of education (M ± SD [CI]) 10.3 ± 4.8 [8.0, 12.7] 8.1 ± 4.3 [7.0, 9.2]2 4.1 ± 5.1 [3.0, 5.2] F(2,161) = 19.55***
Ethnicity (%, n)        Chi2(4) = 102.69***
 Somali 5.6 (1) 23.3 (14) 95.4 (83)  
 Amhara 77.8 (14) 58.3 (35) 1.1 (1)  
 Other 16.7 (3) 18.3 (11) 3.4 (3)  
Marital status (%, n)        Chi2(6) = 10.12
 Single 50.0 (9) 28.3 (17) 37.9 (33)  
 Married 33.3 (6) 41.7 (25) 21.8 (19)  
 Divorced 5.6 (1) 18.3 (11) 21.8 (19)  
 Widowed 11.1 (2) 11.7 (7) 18.4 (16)  
CFV (M ± SD [CI]) 5.4 ± 3.3 [3.7, 7.0] 6.2 ± 4.1 [5.1, 7.2] 5.6 ± 4.8 [4.5, 6.6]3 F(2,161) = 0.34
LTE (M ± SD [CI]) 0.8 ± 1.2 [0.2, 1.43] 1.4 ± 1.5 [1.0, 1.8] 1.9 ± 1.9 [1.4, 2.3] F(2,162) = 3.28*
Mental health measure
HCC (pg/mol; M ± SD [CI])) 28.3 ± 19.7 [17.8, 38.8]4 29.4 ± 18.3 [23.5, 35.2]5 31.6 ± 13.2 [27.8, 35.4]6 F(2,103) = 0.34
PTSD score (M ± SD [CI]) 1.2 ± 4.7 [−1.2, 3.5] 0.8 ± 2.6 [0.2, 1.5] 5.7 ± 10.6 [3.4, 7.9] Welch(2,43.94) = 8.25***
PTSD diagnosis (%, n) 5.6 (1) 0 (0) 18.4 (16) Chi2(2) = 13.49***
ShuD Dissociation score (M ± SD [CI]) 0.1 ± 0.3 [− 0.5, 0.3] 1.0 ± 3.1 [0.2, 1.8] 2.3 ± 5.3 [1.2, 3.4] Welch(2,98.07) = 9.16***
Depression score (M ± SD [CI]) 18.5 ± 6.7 [15.2, 21.8] 18.2 ± 6.0 [16.6, 19.7]2 22.5 ± 11.0 [20.2, 24.9]1 Welch(2,51.20) = 4.78*
Major Depression (%, n) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2   12.6 (11) Chi2(2) = 10.44**
Anxiety score (M ± SD [CI]) 11.7 ± 2.5 [10.51, 12.94] 11.6 ± 2.6 [11.0, 12.3] 14.1 ± 6.4 [12.7, 15.5]3 Welch(2,56.31) = 5.30**
Substance dependence (%, n) 11.1 (2) 6.7 (4) 4.6 (4) Chi2(2) = 1.17
Substance abuse (%, n) 0 (0) 1.7 (1)2 1.1 (1) Chi2(2) = 0.34
Suicidal ideation (%, n) 0 (0) 8.3 (5) 10.3 (9) Chi2(2) = 2.06
Psychotic disorder (%, n) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2.3 (2) Chi2(2) = 1.8
  1. CFV childhood familial violence, LTE lifetime traumatic events
  2. *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01, ***p ≤ .001; 1n = 85, 2n = 59, 3n = 86, 4n = 16, 5n = 40, 6n = 50