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Table 2 Baseline differences between SWIS and WLC

From: Sleep better, feel better? Effects of a CBT-I and HT-I sleep training on mental health, quality of life and stress coping in university students: a randomized pilot controlled trial

Variable SWIS WLC Test statistic p
N M / % (SD) N M / % (SD)
Mental health (ADS, PHQ)
 Depression (ADS) 0–60 39 23.54 (8.84) 15 25.40 (7.51) t(52) = .721 .474
 Clinically relevant depressive symptoms (ADS ≥23) 39 21 (54%) 13 8 (62%) X2(52) = .234 .629
 Somatic complaints (PHQ) 0–26 39 7.62 (4.71) 15 7.20 (4.59) Z = −.252 .801
 Panic (PHQ) 0–11 11 3.91 (3.14) 6 5.13 (2.36) t(17) = .919 .371
 Anxiety (PHQ) 0–12 38 7.58 (2.68) 14 7.57 (2.56) t(50) = −.009 .993
 Alcohol abuse (PHQ) 0–5 29 .24 (.58) 12 0 (0) Z = −1.513 .403
 General stressors (PHQ) 0–27 39 7.74 (3.40) 15 6.47 (2.89) t(52) = − 1.284 .205
Stress coping strategies (SVF)
 Adaptive strategies 39 17.97 (2.64) 15 17.28 (3.92) Z = −.464 .643
 Maladaptive strategies 39 19.52 (3.30) 15 19.97 (4.13) t(52) = .415 .680
Quality of life (SEL)
 Physical condition 39 2.96 (.63) 15 2.72 (.84) Z = −1.393 .164
 Cognitive emotional condition 39 2.79 (.56) 15 2.87 (.62) t(52) = .440 .662
 Quality of life 39 3.13 (.54) 15 3.03 (.50) t(52) = −.642 .524
  1. N varies across variables due to the fact that not all participants affirmed the filter questions for the three PHQ-scales panic, anxiety and alcohol abuse