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Table 5 Means and standard deviations of the long-term effects in participants with clinically relevant depressive symptoms and non-clinically relevant depressive symptoms

From: Sleep better, feel better? Effects of a CBT-I and HT-I sleep training on mental health, quality of life and stress coping in university students: a randomized pilot controlled trial

Variable   N Pre-test Post-test Follow-up
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
Mental health
 Depression ADS < 23 10 13.80 (5.39) 15.70 (8.59) 12.70 (6.24)
ADS ≥23 9 30.00 (4.89) 25.44 (7.60) 22.78 (12.75)
 Somatic complaints ADS < 23 10 8.30 (3.83) 6.70 (3.89) 6.80 (4.63)
ADS ≥23 8 7.00 (5.29) 6.12 (4.29) 6.00 (3.34)
 Anxiety ADS < 23 6 7.83 (1.94) 7.33 (2.16) 6.33 (1.97)
ADS ≥23 5 8.40 (2.30) 7.40 (2.30) 6.40 (2.79)
 General stress ADS < 23 10 4.80 (2.86) 5.00 (3.89) 5.10 (3.14)
ADS ≥23 8 10.00 (3.58) 8.50 (3.02) 6.63 (2.62)
Stress coping strategies
 Adaptive strategies ADS < 23 10 17.90 (2.43) 15.86 (3.96) 16.32 (4.72)
ADS ≥23 9 17.95 (2.55) 16.32 (4.29) 15.01 (5.54)
 Maladaptive strategies ADS < 23 8 17.13 (3.17) 16.47 (4.77) 16.56 (4.77)
ADS ≥23 7 21.32 (2.31) 20.75 (1.95) 16.39 (6.04)
Quality of life
 Physical condition ADS < 23 10 3.20 (.61) 3.55 (.72) 3.62 (.82)
ADS ≥23 9 2.70 (.80) 3.27 (.35) 3.51 (.59)
 Cognitive emotional condition ADS < 23 10 3.32 (.45) 3.23 (.54) 3.43 (.57)
ADS ≥23 9 2.52 (.41) 2.77 (.42) 2.99 (.49)
 Quality of life ADS < 23 10 3.67 (.39) 3.63 (.57) 3.76 (.53)
ADS ≥23 9 2.79 (.44) 3.14 (.39) 3.41 (.43)