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Table 3 Observed means (and standard deviations) and estimated mean differences in change over time between intervention and control groups for all outcome measures

From: Effectiveness of eLearning and blended modes of delivery of Mental Health First Aid training in the workplace: randomised controlled trial

Observed scores   Mean change over time
Outcome Assessment eLearning MHFA blended MHFA eLearning PFA MHFA eLearning vs PFA eLearning Blended MHFA vs PFA eLearning MHFA blended vs eLearning
M SD M SD M SD 95% CI 95% CI 95% CI
Knowledge
 Knowledge of MHFA (% correct) baseline 46.9 15.3 44.6 14.6 44.9 15.3 Mean diff 21.31***
16.77–25.90
25.04***
20.51–29.57
3.70
−0.57 – 7.98
  post 71.5 15.0 73.1 12.7 49.4 18.1 Cohen’s d 1.35
1.02–1.67
1.55
1.22–1.89
0.11
− 0.16 - 0.38
 Beliefs about treatment - depression baseline 5.92 2.32 5.79 2.08 5.77 2.28 Mean diff 1.80***
1.19–2.41
2.01***
1.40–2.61
0.20
− 0.36 - 0.77
  post 7.79 1.90 7.76 1.80 5.90 2.54 Cohen’s d 0.86
0.55–1.17
0.87
0.56–1.18
0.15#
− 0.12 – 0.43
 Beliefs about treatment - PTSD baseline 4.87 1.96 4.70 1.92 4.78 1.96 Mean diff 1.54***
0.98–2.11
1.59***
1.03–2.15
0.05
−0.48 - 0.58
  post 7.17 1.81 7.08 1.65 5.74 2.48 Cohen’s d 0.67
0.37–0.98
0.66
0.36–0.96
− 0.01#
− 0.26 – 0.28
  N % N % N %  
 Correct recognition of depression baseline 190 95.5 176 88.4 190 90.5 Odds ratio 1.05
0.17–6.42
11.11*
1.60–77.28
10.57*
1.47–76.22
  post 94 93.1 103 96.3 69 88.5  
 Correct recognition of PTSD baseline 142 71.4 150 75.4 160 76.2 Odds ratio 1.28
0.38–4.32
3.61
0.96–13.57
2.83
0.84–9.55
  post 78 77.2 94 88.7 61 79.2  
Confidence   M SD M SD M SD  
 Confidence - depression baseline 2.87 1.06 2.84 1.09 2.88 1.06 Mean diff 0.43**
0.16–0.69
0.56***
0.29–0.82
0.13
−0.12 - 0.38
  post 3.55 0.90 3.63 0.75 3.15 1.06 Cohen’s d 0.41
0.11–0.71
0.53
0.23–0.83
0.09
− 0.19 - 0.36
 Confidence - PTSD baseline 2.88 1.10 2.83 1.09 2.87 1.15 Mean diff 0.58***
0.28–0.87
0.65***
0.36–0.94
0.07
− 0.20 - 0.35
  post 3.74 0.90 3.78 0.81 3.22 1.11 Cohen’s d 0.52
0.22–0.82
0.59
0.29–0.89
0.04
−0.23 - 0.32
MHFA intentions quality   M SD M SD M SD  
 Intentions - depression baseline 3.91 1.73 3.62 1.62 3.60 1.61 Mean diff 2.06***
1.45–2.66
3.00***
2.41–3.60
0.95**
0.38–1.52
  post 5.67 2.35 6.35 2.45 3.31 1.55 Cohen’s d 1.16
0.84–1.48
1.43
1.11–1.76
0.28
0.01–0.55
 Intentions - PTSD baseline 3.06 1.45 2.98 1.52 3.03 1.45 Mean diff 2.30***
1.76–2.85
2.47***
1.93–3.01
0.17
−0.35 - 0.68
  post 5.25 2.33 5.40 2.14 2.94 1.37 Cohen’s d 1.17
0.85–1.49
1.33
1.00–1.65
0.07
−0.21 - 0.34
MHFA intentions – Would help   N % N % N %  
 Depression - Agree or strongly agree baseline 156 78.4 149 74.9 158 75.2 Odds ratio 3.33*
1.06–10.44
4.26*
1.39–13.07
1.28
0.42–3.94
  post 87 86.1 93 86.9 56 71.8  
 PTSD - Agree or strongly agree baseline 150 75.4 148 74.4 160 76.2 Odds ratio 22.37***
4.82–103.91
7.33**
2.11–25.50
0.33
0.08–1.35
  post 95 94.1 94 88.7 54 70.1  
Social distance - depression
 % scoring at or below the median. Lower scores mean less social distance baseline N % N % N %  
141 70.9 137 68.8 148 70.5 Odds ratio 5.30*
1.26–22.37
2.96
0.82–10.63
0.56
0.15–2.09
post 87 86.1 88 83.0 59 76.6  
Social distance - PTSD
 % scoring at or below the median. Lower scores mean less social distance baseline N % N % N %  
95 47.7 102 51.3 108 51.4 Odds ratio 4.99*
1.37–18.25
2.45
0.74–8.13
0.49
0.15–1.59
post 60 59.4 67 63.2 41 53.3  
Weak not sick – depression
 % scoring at or above the median baseline N % N % N %  
112 56.3 115 57.8 108 51.4 Odds ratio 1.53
0.56–4.16
1.64
0.60–4.46
1.07
0.41–2.80
post 75 74.3 80 75.5 50 64.9  
Weak not sick – PTSD
 % scoring at or above the median baseline 119 59.8 120 60.3 116 55.2 Odds ratio 1.20
0.42–3.42
1.89
0.63–5.61
1.58
0.56–4.43
post 76 75.3 87 82.1 55 71.4  
Dangerous/unpredictable - depression baseline M SD M SD M SD  
  4.02 0.56 4.02 0.55 4.01 0.56 Mean diff 0.28***
0.13–0.43
0.28***
0.13–0.43
0.00
−0.14 - 0.14
  post 4.26 0.54 4.30 0.52 4.02 0.65 Cohen’s d 0.42
0.12–0.72
0.50
0.20–0.80
0.08
− 0.19 -0.36
Dangerous/unpredictable - PTSD baseline 4.27 0.50 4.25 0.55 4.24 0.53 Mean diff 0.27***
0.13–0.42
0.28***
0.14–0.43
0.01
−0.13 - 0.15
  post 4.46 0.55 4.48 0.47 4.20 0.64 Cohen’s d 0.44
0.14–0.74
0.52
0.22–0.82
0.04
−0.23 - 0.32
  1. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001
  2. # d calculated on change, rather than post due to baseline imbalances