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Table 1 General diagnostic requirements

From: Application of the ICD-11 classification of personality disorders

An enduring disturbance characterized by problems in functioning of aspects of the self (e.g., identity, self-worth, accuracy of self-view, self-direction), and/or interpersonal dysfunction (e.g., ability to develop and maintain close and mutually satisfying relationships, ability to understand others’ perspectives and to manage conflict in relationships).
The disturbance has persisted over an extended period of time (>  2 years).
The disturbance is manifest in patterns of cognition, emotional experience, emotional expression, and behaviour that are maladaptive (e.g., inflexible or poorly regulated).
The disturbance is manifest across a range of personal and social situations (i.e., is not limited to specific relationships or social roles), though it may be consistently evoked by particular types of circumstances but not others.
The patterns of behaviour characterizing the disturbance are not developmentally appropriate and cannot be explained primarily by social or cultural factors, including socio-political conflict.
The symptoms are not due to the direct effects of a medication or substance, including withdrawal effects, and are not better explained by another Mental and Behavioural Disorder, a Disease of the Nervous System, or another health condition.
The disturbance is associated with substantial distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.
  1. Note. Adapted from the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines for Personality Disorder.