| ● An enduring disturbance characterized by problems in functioning of aspects of the self (e.g., identity, self-worth, accuracy of self-view, self-direction), and/or interpersonal dysfunction (e.g., ability to develop and maintain close and mutually satisfying relationships, ability to understand others’ perspectives and to manage conflict in relationships).|
● The disturbance has persisted over an extended period of time (> 2 years).
● The disturbance is manifest in patterns of cognition, emotional experience, emotional expression, and behaviour that are maladaptive (e.g., inflexible or poorly regulated).
● The disturbance is manifest across a range of personal and social situations (i.e., is not limited to specific relationships or social roles), though it may be consistently evoked by particular types of circumstances but not others.
● The patterns of behaviour characterizing the disturbance are not developmentally appropriate and cannot be explained primarily by social or cultural factors, including socio-political conflict.
● The symptoms are not due to the direct effects of a medication or substance, including withdrawal effects, and are not better explained by another Mental and Behavioural Disorder, a Disease of the Nervous System, or another health condition.
● The disturbance is associated with substantial distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.