Skip to main content

Table 2 Estimated differences in mean change of outcomes (unadjusted and adjusted)a between baseline and 18-month follow-up for the intervention group (ZemCAD) versus the control group (CAU)

From: Effectiveness of a self-management training for patients with chronic and treatment resistant anxiety or depressive disorders on quality of life, symptoms, and empowerment: results of a randomized controlled trial

Outcome   Estimate of mean difference (95% CI) t (df) P Cohen’s db
Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREFc)
 Total score unadjusted model 2.40 (− 0.23 to 5.03) 1.81 (128) 0.073 0.31
adjusted model 2.42 (− 0.27 to 5.11) 1.78 (129) 0.077
 Domain 1; unadjusted model 0.95 (− 0.06 to 1.95) 1.87 (127) 0.064 0.29
 Physical health adjusted model 0.86 (−0.17 to 1.89) 1.65 (127) 0.101
 Domain 2; unadjusted model 0.68 (− 0.07 to 1.42) 1.78 (126) 0.077 0.32
 Psychological adjusted model 0.71 (− 0.07 to 1.48) 1.81 (125) 0.074
 Domain 3; unadjusted model 0.39 (− 0.03 to 0.81) 1.82 (122) 0.072 0.3
 Social relationships adjusted model 0.46 (0.02 to 0.89) 2.07 (122) 0.041*
 Domain 4; unadjusted model 0.20 (− 0.85 to 1.25) 0.38 (129) 0.704 0.07
 Environment adjusted model 0.22 (− 0.84 to 1.28) 0.41 (129) 0.685
Anxiety (BAId)
 Total score unadjusted model −0.56 (− 3.11 to 1.99) −0.44 (117) 0.663 −0.07
adjusted model −0.53 (− 3.17 to 2.11) −0.40 (117) 0.693
Depression (PHQ-9e)
 Total score unadjusted model 0.06 (− 1.46 to 1.58) 0.08 (126) 0.936 0.01
adjusted model 0.06 (− 1.51 to 1.63) 0.08 (125) 0.940
Empowerment (NELf)
 Total score unadjusted model 5.00 (1.20 to 8.80) 2.60 (127) 0.010* 0.45
adjusted model 5.00 (1.09 to 8.92) 2.53 (126) 0.013*
 Dimension 1; unadjusted model 0.64 (− 0.47 to 1.76) 1.14 (129) 0.255 0.24
 Professional help adjusted model 0.76 (−0.38 to 1.90) 1.33 (128) 0.187  
 Dimension 2; unadjusted model 0.80 (−0.29 to 1.90) 1.46 (125) 0.148 0.20
 Social support adjusted model 0.61 (−0.50 to 1.73) 1.09 (124) 0.278
 Dimension 3; unadjusted model 1.78 (0.13 to 3.42) 2.13 (126) 0.035* 0.35
 Confidence and purpose adjusted model 1.65 (− 0.04 to 3.35) 1.93 (124) 0.056
 Dimension 4; unadjusted model 0.80 (− 0.14 to 1.74) 1.68 (128) 0.096 0.27
 Connectedness adjusted model 0.75 (− 0.21 to 1.72) 1.54 (128) 0.125
 Dimension 5; unadjusted model 0.30 (− 0.38 to 0.99) 0.88 (127) 0.380 0.15
 Self-management adjusted model 0.30 (− 0.40 to 1.01) 0.85 (127) 0.396
 Dimension 6; unadjusted model 0.86 (0.05 to 1.68) 2.09 (123) 0.038* 0.39
 Caring community adjusted model 0.93 (0.09 to 1.77) 2.19 (123) 0.030*
  1. *Significant difference
  2. aUnadjusted model: crude association. Adjusted model: adjusted for ‘partner status’ and ‘duration of current symptoms’
  3. bd = 2 t / √(df)
  4. cWHOQOL-BREF World Health Organisation Quality of Life, Brief version
  5. dBAI Beck Anxiety Inventory
  6. ePHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire
  7. fNEL Netherlands Empowerment List