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Table 5 Estimated marginal means (EMM) of the outcomes

From: Effectiveness of a self-management training for patients with chronic and treatment resistant anxiety or depressive disorders on quality of life, symptoms, and empowerment: results of a randomized controlled trial

Outcome   ZemCAD (n = 70) Control (n = 71)
EMM (SEMa) EMM (SEM)
Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREFb)
 Total score Baseline 73.31 (1.73) 72.38 (1.75)
6 months (T1) 74.89 (1.74) 73.27 (1.79)
12 months (T2) 78.21 (1.78) 73.39 (1.82)
18 months (T3) 77.36 (1.79) 74.54 (1.82)
 Domain 1; Baseline 18.13 (0.57) 17.86 (0.58)
 Physical health 6 months (T1) 18.79 (0.58) 18.11 (0.60)
12 months (T2) 20.40 (0.60) 18.30 (0.61)
18 months (T3) 20.02 (0.61) 19.07 (0.61)
 Domain 2; Baseline 15.31 (0.43) 15.40 (0.43)
 Psychological 6 months (T1) 15.80 (0.43) 15.41 (0.45)
12 months (T2) 16.37 (0.45) 15.60 (0.46)
18 months (T3) 16.34 (0.45) 15.62 (0.46)
 Domain 3; Baseline 8.23 (0.29) 8.62 (0.29)
 Social relationships 6 months (T1) 8.55 (0.29) 8.77 (0.30)
12 months (T2) 8.70 (0.30) 8.36 (0.31)
18 months (T3) 8.66 (0.31) 8.60 (0.31)
 Domain 4; Baseline 26.56 (0.61) 25.60 (0.61)
 Environment 6 months (T1) 26.67 (0.61) 26.09 (0.63)
12 months (T2) 27.39 (0.63) 26.45 (0.64)
18 months (T3) 27.15 (0.63) 26.21 (0.64)
Anxiety (BAIc)
 Total score Baseline 43.76 (1.50) 45.42 (1.52)
6 months (T1) 43.88 (1.52) 44.66 (1.56)
12 months (T2) 40.88 (1.56) 43.84 (1.61)
18 months (T3) 42.53 (1.58) 44.46 (1.60)
Depression (PHQ-9d)
 Total score Baseline 22.46 (0.77) 23.33 (0.78)
6 months (T1) 21.16 (0.78) 21.93 (0.80)
12 months (T2) 19.86 (0.80) 20.63 (0.83)
18 months (T3) 21.27 (0.82) 20.99 (0.83)
Empowerment (NELe)
 Total score Baseline 121.94 (2.35) 121.37 (2.38)
6 months (T1) 125.58 (2.38) 119.59 (2.45)
12 months (T2) 126.88 (2.44) 119.92 (2.50)
18 months (T3) 123.66 (2.47) 123.08 (2.50)
 Dimension 1; Baseline 13.40 (0.57) 13.80 (0.58)
 Professional help 6 months (T1) 13.65 (0.59) 12.78 (0.61)
12 months (T2) 12.28 (0.62) 12.16 (0.63)
18 months (T3) 9.39 (0.63) 12.23 (0.63)
 Dimension 2; Baseline 23.03 (0.58) 23.78 (0.59)
 Social support 6 months (T1) 23.55 (0.59) 23.52 (0.61)
12 months (T2) 24.10 (0.61) 23.77 (0.62)
18 months (T3) 23.99 (0.61) 23.47 (0.62)
 Dimension 3; Baseline 34.98 (0.93) 34.29 (0.94)
 Confidence and purpose 6 months (T1) 36.77 (0.94) 34.20 (0.96)
12 months (T2) 37.63 (0.96) 34.86 (0.99)
18 months (T3) 37.68 (0.97) 36.19 (0.99)
 Dimension 4; Baseline 18.65 (0.46) 18.20 (0.47)
 Connectedness 6 months (T1) 19.41 (0.47) 17.77 (0.48)
12 months (T2) 19.42 (0.49) 18.26 (0.50)
18 months (T3) 19.27 (0.49) 18.94 (0.50)
 Dimension 5; Baseline 15.22 (0.37) 15.53 (0.38)
 Self-management 6 months (T1) 15.48 (0.38) 15.72 (0.39)
12 months (T2) 16.15 (0.39) 15.48 (0.40)
18 months (T3) 16.20 (0.40) 16.03 (0.40)
 Dimension 6; Baseline 16.66 (0.47) 15.79 (0.47)
 Caring community 6 months (T1) 16.84 (0.48) 15.67 (0.49)
12 months (T2) 17.51 (0.49) 15.45 (0.50)
18 months (T3) 17.29 (0.50) 16.27 (0.50)
  1. aSEM Standard error of the mean
  2. bWHOQOL-BREF World Health Organisation Quality of Life, Brief version
  3. cBAI Beck Anxiety Inventory
  4. dPHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire
  5. eNEL Netherlands Empowerment List