Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Detection of psychoactive substances in all deaths, n (%)

From: Psychoactive substances in natural and unnatural deaths in Norway and Sweden – a study on victims of suicide and accidents compared with natural deaths in psychiatric patients

  Norway Sweden
Natural deaths n = 32 Suicides n = 136 Accidents n = 157 P-value (×2) Natural deaths n = 108 Suicides n = 192 Accidents n = 124 Undetermined deaths n = 59 P-value (× 2)
Alcohols 10 (31) 36 (27) 49 (31)o 0.650 37 (34) 73 (38) 44 (36) o 20 (34) 0.894
 Ethanol 10 (31) 36 (27) 47 (30) 37 (34) 73 (38) 44 (36) 20 (34)
 Toxic alcoholsa 0 1 (1) 2 (1) 0 0 0 0
Opioids 1 (3) 16 (12) 87 (55)*** < 0.001 10 (9) 27 (14) 38 (31)*** 20 (34) < 0.001
 Heroin/morphine 0 7 (5) 65 (41) 2 (2) 4 (2) 13 (11) 6 (10)
 Other opioidsb 1 (3) 11 (8) 30 (19) 9 (8) 25 (13) 29 (23) 18 (31)
Cannabinoids 2 (6) 6 (4) 20 (13)* 0.036 4 (4) 3 (2) 10 (8)** 3 (5) 0.042
Psychostimulantsc 1 (3) 10 (7) 24 (15)* 0.031 3 (3) 6 (3) 15 (12)** 4 (7) 0.004
Benzodiazepines and z-drugsd 3 (9) 46 (34) 64 (41)o 0.003 12 (11) 49 (26) 30 (24)o 22 (37) 0.001
Sedative antihistaminese 1 (3) 9 (7) 8 (5)o 0.698 8 (7) 33 (17) 14 (11)o 14 (24) 0.013
Antidepressants 3 (9) 30 (22) 23 (15)o 0.114 7 (7) 56 (29) 21 (17)* 22 (37) < 0.001
 SSRI/SNRI 3 (9) 21 (15) 15 (10) 6 (6) 50 (26) 17 (14) 19 (32)
 Other antidepressants 0 12 (9) 12 (8) 1 (1) 16 (8) 8 (7) 5 (9)
Antipsychotics 2 (6) 16 (12) 12 (8)o 0.396 1 (1) 6 (3) 5 (4)o 2 (3) 0.543
Antiepilepticsf 0 7 (5) 10 (6)o 0.336 7 (7) 11 (6) 4 (3)o 2 (3) 0.600
Other/unspecified psychoactive agentsg 3 (9) 12 (9) 19 (12)o 0.644 1 (1) 5 (3) 1 (1)o 3 (5) 0.205
Any psychoactive agent 16 (50) 90 (66) 134 (85)*** < 0.001 57 (53) 142 (74) 82 (66)o 47 (80) < 0.001
  1. aMethanol, isopropanolol
  2. bMethadone, buphrenorphine, oxycodone, ketobimedone, tramadol, fentanyl, dextropropoxyphene. Includes combination drugs containing codeine, but not codeine assumed to be derived from heroin/morphine
  3. cAmphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine/benzoylecgonine, MMA, ecstasy and related substances
  4. dZolpidem and zopiclone
  5. eAlimemazine, promethazine, dexchlorfeniramine, hydroxyzine and related substances
  6. fKarbamazepin, lamotrigin, fenobarbital, gabapentin, pregabalin, fenytoin, topiramat (not benzodiazepines)
  7. gGHB, nimbex, tiopental, baclofen, propofol, ketamin, butan, orfenadrin, somadril/karsiprodol, biperiden, kloroxazon
  8. oAccidents not significantly different from suicides (p-value > 0.05)
  9. *Accidents significantly different from suicides (p-value < 0.05)
  10. **Accidents significantly different from suicides (p-value < 0.01)
  11. ***Accidents significantly different from suicides (p-value < 0.001)