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Table 4 Psychoactive substances according to suicide method, n (%)

From: Psychoactive substances in natural and unnatural deaths in Norway and Sweden – a study on victims of suicide and accidents compared with natural deaths in psychiatric patients

  Intentional self-poisoning ICD-10: X60-X69 Intentional self-harm by hanging, strangulation and suffocation. ICD-10: X70 Other intentional self-harm ICD-10: X71-X75, X78, X80-X84, X870
Norway n = 37 Sweden n = 56 Norway n = 44 Sweden n = 67 Norway n = 55 Sweden n = 69
Ethanol 14 (38) 22 (39) o 10 (23) 26 (39) 12 (22) 25 (36)
Opioids 12 (32) 19 (34) o 3 (7) 2 (3) 1 (2) 6 (9)
 Heroin/morphine 4 (11) 3 (5) 2 (5) 0 1 (2) 1 (1)
Other opioidsa 9 (24) 18 (32) 2 (5) 2 (3) 0 5 (7)
Cannabinoids 0 2 (4)o 4 (9) 1 (2) 2 (4) 0
Psychostimulantsb 5 (14) 1 (2)* 5 (11) 3 (5) 0 2 (3)
Benzodiazepines, z-drugsc 23 (62) 26 (46)o 12 (27) 13 (19) 11 (20) 10 (15)
Sedative antihistaminesd 4 (11) 23 (41)** 3 (7) 4 (6) 2 (4) 6 (9)
Antidepressants 13 (35) 23 (41)o 8 (18) 16 (24) 9 (16) 17 (25)
SSRI/SNRI 8 (22) 18 (32) 6 (14) 16 (24) 7 (13) 16 (23)
 Other antidepressants 7 (19) 12 (21) 2 (5) 1 (2) 3 (6) 4 (6)
Antipsychotics 9 (24) 4 (7)* 3 (7) 1 (2) 4 (7) 1 (1)
Antiepilepticse 6 (16) 7 (13)o 1 (2) 3 (5) 0 1 (1)
Other/unspecified psychoactive agentf 4 (11) 3 (5)o 2 (5) 1 (2) 6 (11) 1 (1)
Any psychoactive agent 32 (87) 55 (98)* 26 (59) 41 (61) 32 (58) 46 (67)
  1. aMethadone, buphrenorphine, oxycodone, ketobimedone, tramadol, fentanyl, dextropropoxyphene. Includes combination drugs containing codeine, but not codeine assumed to be derived from heroin/morphine
  2. bAmphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine/benzoylecgonine, MMA, ecstasy and related substances
  3. cZolpidem and zopiclone
  4. dAlimemazine, promethazine, dexchlorfeniramine, hydroxyzine and related substances
  5. eKarbamazepin, lamotrigin, fenobarbital, gabapentin, pregabalin, fenytoin, topiramat (not benzodiazepinesf GHB, nimbex, tiopental, baclofen, propofol, ketamin, butan, orfenadrin, somadril/karsiprodol, biperiden, kloroxazon
  6. fGHB, nimbex, tiopental, baclofen, propofol, ketamin, butan, orfenadrin, somadril/karsiprodol, biperiden, kloroxazon
  7. oNo significant differences in suicides by poisoning in Norway and Sweden (p-value > 0.05)
  8. *Significant differences in suicides by poisoning in Norway and Sweden (p-value < 0.05)
  9. **Significant differences in suicides by poisoning in Norway and Sweden (p-value < 0.01)
  10. ***Significant differences in suicides by poisoning in Norway and Sweden (p-value < 0.00)