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Table 3 Multivariate analysis with significant risk factors for impaired maternal bonding in univariable analysis, without adjusted depression and adjusted with depression

From: Risk factors for impaired maternal bonding when infants are 3 months old: a longitudinal population based study from Japan

Variable Multivariate analysis1)
without adjusted depression
Multivariate analysis1)
adjusted with depression
Moderate High Moderate High
OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
1–2. Parity
 Multipara Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Primipara 1.83 (1.22–2.76)* 2.47 (1.19–5.13)* 1.85 (1.22–2.81)* 1.97 (0.92–4.23)
1–3. Maternal feeling about pregnancy
 Delighted Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Negative feeling (Unintended/worried) 1.53 (0.99–2.35) 2.40 (1.17–4.96)* 1.46 (0.94–2.28) 2.16 (1.02–4.56)*
1–4. Maternal stress symptoms
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 0.36 (0.08–1.56) 2.58 (0.86–7.73) 0.22 (0.03–1.65) 1.85 (0.57–5.98)
1–5. Perceived maternal mental illness pregnancy before
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 0.90 (0.26–3.13) 2.71 (0.82–8.92) 0.35 (0.05–2.68) 2.13 (0.59–7.71)
2–1. Infant Sex
 Boy Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Girl 1.06 (0.71–1.59) 0.89 (0.44–1.84) 1.09 (0.72–1.65) 0.83 (0.39–1.77)
2–2. Birth weight
 ≥ 2500 g Reference Reference Reference Reference
 < 2500 g 1.06 (0.49–2.32) 1.96 (0.70–5.51) 0.99 (0.44–2.27) 1.95 (0.67–5.68)
3–1. Postpartum depression
 No    Reference Reference
 Yes    1.07 (0.43–2.65) 7.85 (3.44–17.90)***
4–2. Feeding style
 Only Breast feeding Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Only Bottle feeding 1.34 (0.76–2.37) 1.13 (0.39–3.28) 1.21 (0.67–2.20) 0.98 (0.33–2.95)
 Breast and bottle feeding 1.18 (0.72–1.94) 2.14 (0.97–4.71) 1.09 (0.65–1.82) 1.72 (0.75–3.94)
  1. 1) The multivariate analysis comprises variables that were shown to be significantly associated with impaired maternal bonding in the univariable analysis
  2. *** < 0.0001, ** < 0.001, * < 0.05, + < 0.10