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Table 4 Cox regression analysis for risk of death over the 19 years after entering treatment for SUDs, n = 254 (cases with missing data for at least one covariate were excluded)

From: Mortality, cause of death and risk factors in patients with alcohol use disorder alone or poly-substance use disorders: a 19-year prospective cohort study

  Model 1a Model 2b
Bivariate
HR (95% CI)
Multiple, AIC reduced
HR (95% CI)
Demographics
 Sex, male (female – ref.) 1.50 (0.87–2.57) 1.12 (1.07–1.17)c ***
 Age 1.06 (1.04–1.08)*** 1.06 (1.00–1.73)d
Mental health
 Affective disorder (no affective disorder – ref) 0.56 (0.37–0.87)** 0.58 (0.37–0.91)*
 Anxiety disorder (no anxiety disorder – ref) 0.83 (0.49–1.41)  
 Number of psychiatric symptom disorders (except SUDs) 0.95 (0.87–1.03)  
 Personality disorder (no personality disorder – ref) 1.00 (0.63–1.60)  
Substance use
 First SUD onset before the age of 18 years (above 18 years – ref.)c 0.58 (0.37–0.93)* 1.01 (0.96–1.07)c
 AUD alone (poly-SUDs – ref.)c 2.67 (1.67–4.24)*** 1.00 (0.96–1.05)c
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  2. aBivariate analysis of risk of death by 31 December 2016, adjusted for inter-unit differences
  3. bMultiple model for risk of death by 31 December 2016, stratified by having AUD alone at baseline, adjusted for inter-unit differences. Stratification was performed by estimating the model containing interactions between all variables and AUD alone, and in addition to interactions between age and sex, age and affective disorder, age and first SUD onset before the age of 18 years, and sex and first SUD onset before the age of 18 years. The model was reduced by applying the AIC, leaving three interactions in the model: age and sex, age and first SUD onset before 18 years of age, and age and AUD alone
  4. cHR for 1-year change in age
  5. dHR for 1-year change in age in reference groups (female sex, first SUD onset at 18 or more years, poly-SUDs)