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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants (N = 399)

From: Association between parental visitation and depressive symptoms among institutionalized children in Japan: a cross-sectional study

  Mean [SD] / n (%)
Age 13.3 [2.4]
Gender (% Female) 211 (52.9)
DSRSC score 14.6 [6.3]
Household type
 Having both parents 128 (32.1)
 Single mother 136 (34.1)
 Single father 61 (15.3)
 Do not have a parent (orphans) 28 (7.0)
Visitation
 Either mother or father a 183 (49.3)
  Mother a 129 (41.6)
  Father a 66 (28.1)
 Grandparents, other relatives, and friends 46 (11.5)
 Number of visits (per year)
  No visit 106 (26.6)
  1 to 6 times 105 (26.3)
  6 or more times 137 (34.3)
Experience of maltreatment
 Physical abuse 97 (24.3)
 Emotional abuse 102 (25.6)
 Sexual abuse 20 (5.0)
 Neglect 158 (39.6)
 Domestic violence 65 (16.3)
Frequency of maltreatment
 None 123 (30.8)
 1 118 (29.6)
 2 66 (16.5)
 3 or more 56 (14.0)
Perceived social support
 Mother
  Low 91 (22.8)
  Middle 102 (25.6)
  High 92 (23.1)
 Father
  Low 93 (25.2)
  Middle 91 (24.7)
  High 94 (25.5)
 Care workers
  Low 102 (25.6)
  Middle 116 (29.1)
  High 112 (28.1)
Secure scores of Internal Working Model Scale 19.9 [6.3]
  1. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and number of participants and the percentage for categorical variables are shown (mean [SD]/n (%)). The figures do not sum to 100% in the section as data on missing values are not shown
  2. aOnly includes biological parents