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Table 1 Comparison of clinical characteristics and severity of depression in all participants, responders and non-responders

From: Delayed effect of bifrontal transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with treatment-resistant depression: a pilot study

  All participants Responders
N = 6
Non-responders
N = 12
P-value
Age (years) 44.6 14.2 47.7 12.5 43 15.3 .527
Sex        1.00
 Male 5 27.8% 2 33.3% 3 25%  
 Female 13 72.2% 4 66.7% 9 75%  
Diagnosis        1.00
 MDD 13 72% 4 66.7% 9 75%  
 Bipolar 5 28% 2 33.3% 3 25%  
Onset age (years) 29.8 15.6 29 14.6 30.2 16.8 .887
Ever received ECT        1.00
 No 16 88.9% 5 83.3% 11 91.7%  
 Yes 2 11.1% 1 16.7% 1 8.3%  
Every visited ER for psychiatric emergency        .344
 No 6 33.3% 3 50% 3 33.3%  
 Yes 12 66.7% 3 50% 9 66.7%  
History of suicide attempt        .321
 No 8 44.4% 4 66.7% 4 33.3%  
 Yes 10 55.6% 2 33.3% 8 66.7%  
Family history of psychiatric disorders        .638
 No 10 55.6% 4 66.7% 6 50%  
 Yes 8 44.4% 2 33.3% 6 50%  
With antidepressants        1.00
 No 2 11.1% 1 16.7% 1 8.3%  
 Yes 16 88.9% 5 83.3% 11 91.7%  
With antipsychotics        1.00
 No 9 50% 3 50% 6 50%  
 Yes 9 50% 3 50% 6 50%  
With mood stabilizers        1.00
 No 14 77.8% 5 83.3% 9 75%  
 Yes 4 22.2% 1 16.7% 3 25%  
With benzodiazepines        1.00
 No 1 5.6% 0 0% 1 83.3%  
 Yes 17 94.4% 6 100% 11 91.7%  
MADRS at baseline 29.61 9.71 30.83 15.09 29 6.41 .718
BDI at baseline 34.56 13.05 31.83 15.74 35.92 12.02 .548
  1. MADRS Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, BDI Beck Depression Inventory; numbers in the table are either means with standard deviation or counts with percentage