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Table 1 Description of the themes and content of the structured skills training group

From: Evaluation of a structured skills training group for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Session Themes
1. Introduction: Introduction and overview of the treatment, psychoeducation about ADHD, strengths, and difficulties with ADHD and introduction of the main themes of treatment. Define goals. Give a home assignment, which is a central part of all sessions.
2. Neurobiology and mindfulness I: Neurobiology of ADHD, emphasising difficulties in executive functions and the possibility to improve functions through practice, e.g. mindfulness training. Introducing mindfulness. Thereafter, mindfulness training is included in all sessions.
3. Homework and mindfulness II: The purpose and importance of homework as a part of the treatment are emphasised. Participants receive tips for how to get the home assignments done.
4. Acceptance and mindfulness III: The balance between acceptance and change is discussed. The concept of “wise mind” and the integration of the emotional mind and the reasonable mind is introduced.
5. Chaos and control: Difficulties in organization and planning are highlighted and strategies with the aim to increase control are introduced.
6 Emotions: Education in emotion theory (primary emotions, connection between emotions, thoughts, behaviours, signals and communicatory aspects of emotions, emotions and ADHD). Practice in identifying, observing, and describing emotional signals to regulate and cope with emotions.
7–8. Behavioural analysis: Participants are introduced to behavioural analysis (preceding events/internal and external “triggers”, behavioural responses, and consequences). Strategies to find alternative behaviours are introduced and practiced. Behavioural analysis is applied on own examples and thereafter used throughout treatment.
9. Medication, mental illness, and how to increase wellbeing: Information and discussion about pharmacological treatment for ADHD, documented effects as well as side effects. Symptoms of depression and other emotional problems are discussed, also focusing on treatment, preventive strategies, and emotional regulation.
10. Impulsivity, risk behaviour, and addiction: Symptoms of addiction and other forms of risky behaviours are discussed. Practice in identifying, describing, and regulating impulsive behaviours using mindfulness and behaviour analysis as strategies.
11. Stress: Physiological reactions of stress and the relation between stress and performance are covered. Exercises in identifying and learning about own personal stress are performed. Strategies for stress management are taught.
12–13. Self-esteem and relationships: Differences between self-esteem, self-confidence, and self-respect are clarified, including the impact of ADHD on these areas. Social skills are taught and practiced.
14. Retrospect and outlook: The participants summarize their experience of the group treatment, identify achieved, as well as remaining goals and plan for maintaining progress and how to manage future problems.