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Table 2 Participant demographics, clinical profile and medication use at pre-treatment

From: Effects and clinical feasibility of a behavioral treatment for sleep problems in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pragmatic within-group pilot evaluation

VariableTotal n = 19
Age
 Mean (Range)37.0 (19–57)
Sex
 Female13 (68%)
Marital Status
 Single9 (47.4%)
 Married/registered partnership/in a relationship8 (42.1%)
 Divorced/widow/widower1 (5.3%)
 Other1 (5.3%)
Educational Level
 Primary school1 (5.3%)
 Secondary school9 (47.4%)
 University9 (47.4%)
Occupation
 Working/studying/self-employed9 (47.4%)
 On sick leave, disability pension etc8 (42.1%)
 Other2 (10.5%)
Pre-treatment ADHD severitya
 Overall, Mean (SD)43 (13.6)
 Inattention subscale, Mean (SD)24 (7.2)
 Hyperactivity/impulsivity, Mean (SD)20 (7.9)
ADHD-subtype
 Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive4 (21%)
 Predominantly inattentive6 (32%)
 Combined subtype7 (42%)
 NOS1 (5%)
 Current comorbid psychiatric symptoms13 (68%)
Comorbid psychiatric problems in the past yeare
 Depression15 (79%)
 Anxiety13 (68%)
 Panic attacks8 (42%)
 Excessive worry8 (42%)
 Post-traumatic stress4 (21%)
 Specific phobia4 (21%)
 Intrusive thoughts and/or impulses4 (21%)
 Psychosis1 (5%)
 Manic episodes1 (5%)
 Alcohol and/or substance abuse/addiction1 (5%)
 Other3 (16%)
Number of comorbid psychiatric problems in the past year
 Mean (SD)3.3 (2.6)
Sleep Disorder Screeningb
 Insomnia19 (100%)
 Nightmares15 (79%)
 Circadian rhythm sleep disorder14 (73%)
 Sleep apnea14 (73%)
 Restless legs/Periodic limb movements disorder10 (53%)
 Narcolepsy4 (21%)
 Daytime impairment (irritation, concentration difficulties etc.)18 (95%)
Years with Sleep Problemsf
 Mean (range)15.3 (1.5–40)
Pre-treatment Insomnia severityc
 Mean ISI score (SD)15 (3.9)
 Clinical insomnia, severe (22–28 points)1 (5%)
 Clinical insomnia, moderate severity (15–21 points)11 (58%)
 Subthreshold insomnia (8–14 points)6 (32%)
 No clinically significant insomnia (0–7 points)1 (5%)
Circadian typedg
 Extreme morning type1 (5%)
 Morning-type0 (0%)
 Intermediate type2 (11%)
 Evening-type3 (16%)
 Extreme evening-type12 (63%)
 Current stimulant use, n (%)15 (79%)
Stimulantse
 Methylphenidate7 (37%)
 Dextroamphetamine4 (21%)
 Lisdexamfetamine7 (37%)
 Current sleep medication use, n (%)8 (42%)
Sleep medicationse
 Melatonin4 (22%)
 Z-drugs2 (11%)
 Antipsychotics3 (16%)
 Antihistamines2 (11%)
 Current use of other medication, n (%)11 (58%)
Other medicationse
 Anticonvulsant3 (16%)
 Antidepressant7 (37%)
 Other8 (42%)
  1. aAdult ADHD Self-Report Scale [36]
  2. bSleep-50 [32]
  3. cInsomnia Severity Index [34]
  4. dMorning-eveningness question from the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire [32]
  5. eEach individual may mark more (or less) than one
  6. f n = 12
  7. g n = 18