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Table 1 Bivariate comparison of study characteristics in men and women with CVD, by presence and absence of depressive symptoms, N = 1022

From: Mediators of gender effects on depression among cardiovascular disease patients in Palestine

Variable Sample with depressive Symptoms (CDS ≥90)
(N = 804)
Sample without depressive symptoms (CDS < 90)
(N = 218)
Male
(N = 573) N (%)
Female
(N = 231) N (%)
P value Male
(N = 177) N (%)
Female
(N = 41) N (%)
P value
Socio-demographic factors
 Age, mean (SD)a 57.9 ± 9.6 61.6 ± 10.5 < 0.001 57.8 ± 10.2 63.7 ± 10.7 0.001
 Marital status    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Married 564 (98.4) 171 (74.0)   166 (93.8) 25 (60.7)  
  Not married 9 (1.6) 60 (26.0)   11 (6.2) 16 (39.0)  
 Residence    0.456    0.723
  City 261 (45.5) 104 (45.0)   89 (50.3) 20 (48.8)  
  Village 270 (47.1) 104 (45.0)   79 (44.6) 20 (48.8)  
  Camp 42 (7.3) 23 (10.0)   9 (5.1) 1 (2.4)  
 Education degree    < 0.001    0.004
  No HS diploma 298 (52.0) 188 (81.4)   84 (47.4) 30 (73.2)  
  HS diploma 173 (30.2) 32 (13.8)   49 (27.7) 9 (21.9)  
  College degree 102 (17.8) 11 (4.8)   44 (24.9) 2 (4.9)  
 Occupation    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Professional 153 (26.7) 9 (3.9)   47 (26.6) 0 (0.0)  
  Non-professional 226 (39.4) 4 (1.7)   76 (42.9) 1 (2.4)  
  Unemployed 143 (25.0) 175 (75.8)   31 (17.5) 29 (70.8)  
  Retired 51 (8.9) 4 (1.7)   23 (13.0) 3 (7.3)  
  House wife 0 (0.0) 39 (16.9)   0 (0.0) 8 (19.5)  
 Income    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Yes 442 (77.1) 77 (33.3)   146 (82.5) 12 (29.3)  
  No 131 (22.9) 154 (66.7)   31 (17.5) 29 (70.7)  
Clinical Factors
 Cardiac diagnosis    < 0.001    0.010
  CHD 188 (32.8) 63 (27.3)   70 (39.6) 13 (31.7)  
  MI 242 (42.2) 76 (32.9)   73 (41.2) 15 (36.6)  
  Angina 96 (16.8) 38 (16.4)   24 (13.6) 4 (9.8)  
  Other 47 (8.2) 54 (23.4)   10 (5.6) 9 (21.9)  
 Previous cardiac diagnosis    0.036    0.898
  Yes 386 (67.4) 173 (74.9)   106 (59.9) 25 (61.0)  
  No 187 (32.6) 58 (25.1)   71 (40.1) 16 (39.0)  
 Years with cardiac disease    0.356    0.800
  ≤1 year 347 (60.6) 130 (56.3)   124 (70.1) 27 (65.8)  
  2–9 years 148 (25.8) 61 (26.4)   37 (20.9) 9 (22.0)  
  ≥ 10 years 78 (13.6) 40 (17.3)   16 (9.0) 5 (12.2)  
 Cardiac treatment (at admission)    0.005    0.872
  CATH/stent 306 (53.4) 98 (42.4)   107 (60.5) 23 (56.0)  
  CATH/CABG 139 (24.3) 58 (25.1)   34 (19.2) 9 (22.0)  
  CATH/other & unknown 128 (22.3) 75 (32.5)   36 (20.3) 9 (22.0)  
 Co-morbidities    < 0.001    0.021
  None 182 (31.8) 32 (13.9)   73 (41.2) 12 (29.3)  
  1 169 (29.5) 68 (29.4)   57 (32.2) 9 (22.0)  
  2+ 222 (38.7) 131 (56.7)   47 (26.6) 20 (48.7)  
 Medications    0.003    0.471
  None 81 (14.1) 13 (5.6)   32 (18.1) 6 (14.6)  
  1–2 85 (14.9) 37 (16.0)   22 (12.4) 8 (19.5)  
  3–4 407 (71.0) 181 (78.4)   123 (69.5) 27 (65.8)  
 Somatic symptoms (PHQ-15)    < 0.001    0.046
  Minimal 48 (8.4) 6 (2.6)   35 (19.8) 2 (4.9)  
  Low 118 (20.6) 34 (14.7)   74 (41.8) 15 (36.6)  
  Medium 193 (33.7) 64 (27.7)   43 (24.3) 14 (34.1)  
  High 214 (37.3) 127 (55.0)   25 (14.1) 10 (24.4)  
 Family history    0.356    0.033
  Yes 236 (41.2) 87 (37.7)   63 (35.6) 22 (53.7)  
  No 337 (58.8) 144 (62.3)   114 (64.4) 19 (46.3)  
 QoL, (SF-12-PCS score), mean (SD)a 38.2 ± 12.1 31.4 ± 10.1 < 0.001 44.6 ± 12.1 34.4 ± 1.9 < 0.001
Psychosocial factors
 PTSD (PTSD-PCL-S)    < 0.001    0.282
  Minimal 329 (57.4) 105 (45.4)   147 (83.1) 30 (73.2)  
  Some 66 (11.5) 15 (6.5)   11 (6.2) 3 (7.3)  
  Moderate 141 (24.6) 85 (36.8)   19 (10.7) 8 (19.5)  
  High 37 (6.5) 26 (11.3)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Social support (ESSI)    < 0.001    0.293
  Low 186 (32.5) 108 (46.7)   54 (30.5) 16 (39.0)  
  High 387 (67.5) 123 (53.3)   123 (69.5) 25 (61.0)  
 Resilience (RS-14)    < 0.001    0.002
  Very low 45 (7.9) 38 (16.4)   3 (1.7) 6 (14.6)  
  Low 55 (9.6) 38 (16.4)   8 (4.5) 2 (4.9)  
  Low-end 118 (20.6) 46 (19.9)   37 (20.9) 3 (7.3)  
  Moderate 148 (25.8) 52 (22.5)   45 (25.4) 12 (29.3)  
  Moderately-high 156 (27.2) 45 (19.5)   58 (32.8) 15 (36.6)  
  High 51 (8.9) 12 (5.1)   26 (14.7) 3 (7.3)  
 Self-esteem (SISE), mean (SD)a 5.9 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 1.6 < 0.001 6.2 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.2 0.633
 QoL,(SF-12-MCS score), mean (SD)a 39.1 ± 12.5 35.3 ± 3.3 < 0.001 46.2 ± 12.6 47.0 ± 1.9 0.724
Lifestyle factors
 Smoking status    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Never 106 (18.5) 182 (78.8)   42 (23.7) 34 (82.9)  
  Former 126 (22.0) 11 (4.8)   105 (59.3) 4 (9.8)  
  Current 341 (59.5) 38 (16.4)   30 (17.0) 3 (7.3)  
 Currently on diet    0.767    0.483
  Yes 87 (15.2) 37 (16.0)   39 (22.0) 7 (17.1)  
  No 486 (84.8) 194 (84.0)   138 (78.0) 34 (82.9)  
 Fat consumption    < 0.001    0.075
  Low 247 (43.1) 127 (55.0)   85 (48.0) 21 (51.2)  
  Medium 176 (30.7) 77 (33.3)   53 (30.0) 17 (41.5)  
  High 150 (26.2) 27 (11.7)   39 (22.0) 3 (7.3)  
 Vegetable & fruit consumption    0.920    0.789
  Low 59 (10.3) 25 (10.8)   15 (8.5) 3 (7.3)  
  Medium 200 (34.9) 83 (35.9)   55 (31.1) 15 (36.6)  
  High 314 (54.8) 123 (53.3)   107 (60.4) 23 (56.1)  
 Alcohol use    0.004    0.100
  Yes 35 (6.1) 3 (1.3)   11 (6.2) 0 (0.0)  
  No 536 (93.9) 228 (98.7)   165 (93.8) 41 (100.0)  
 Physical activity    < 0.001    0.008
  None 178 (31.1) 117 (50.7)   31 (17.5) 11 (26.8)  
  Not daily 116 (20.2) 37 (16.0)   24 (13.6) 12 (29.3)  
  Daily 279 (48.7) 77 (33.3)   122 (68.9) 18 (43.9)  
 BMI    0.083    0.230
  Underweight 3 (0.5) 0 (0.0)   1 (0.6) 0 (0.0)  
  Normal weight 118 (20.6) 39 (16.9)   38 (21.5) 4 (9.8)  
  Overweight 236 (41.2) 84 (36.4)   87 (49.1) 20 (48.8)  
  Obese 216 (37.7) 108 (46.7)   51 (28.8) 17 (41.4)  
  1. Gender differences were assessed using Chi-squared and t-tests, respectively, both in patients with and without depressive symptoms
  2. P values in bold are significant at p < 0.05
  3. CDS Cardiac depression scale, HS High school, MI Myocardial infarction, CHD Coronary heart disease, CATH Catheterization, CABG Coronary artery bypass graft, PHQ-15 Patient health questionnair-15, QoL Quality of life, SF-12 Short-form 12 health survey, PCS Physical component summary, SD Standard deviation, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD-PCL-S Post-traumatic stress disorder checklist, RS-14 Resilience scale-14, SISE Single-item self-esteem scale, ESSI ENRICHD social support instrument, MCS Mental component summary, BMI Body mass index
  4. aIndependent t test