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Table 1 Description of CLSA Sample by Sex (n = 27,162)

From: Depression in middle and older adulthood: the role of immigration, nutrition, and other determinants of health in the Canadian longitudinal study on aging

Variable Men (N = 13,417) Women (N = 13,745)
Depressed Sample (Weighted %) Total Sample (Unweighted n) χ2 (df), p-value Depressed Sample (Weighted %) Total Sample (Unweighted n) χ2 (df),p-value
Demographic, Social, and Economic Factors
 Immigration status
  Native-born Canadian 12.6% 10,841 2.74 (2), .255 17.1% 11,582 31.8 (2), <.001
  Immigrant < 20 years 14.5% 301 28.9% 214
  Immigrant ≥20 years 11.8% 2275 18.8% 1949
 Age
  45–55 years 13.7% 3382 25.8 (3), <.001 17.4% 3615 7.22 (3), .065
  56–65 years 12.8% 4349 17.4% 4662
  66–75 years 9.9% 3326 16.7% 3259
  76–85 years 10.6% 2360 19.9% 2209
 Income
   < $20,000 38.0% 462 446.4 (5), <.001 36.7% 838 399.6 (5), <.001
  $20,000–$49,999 18.5% 2268 23.5% 3339
  $50,000–$99,999 13.0% 4604 16.7% 4427
  $100,000–$149,999 9.9% 2865 12.3% 2242
   ≥ $150,000 6.6% 2610 10.1% 1865
  Not answered 18.1% 608 23.1% 1034
 Relationship status
  Single 24.8% 1056 295.4 (2), <.001 24.3% 1263 108.2 (2), <.001
  Married/live with a partner/common-law 10.3% 10,510 15.4% 8349
  Widowed/divorced/separated 21.4% 1851 22.1% 4133
 Education level
   < secondary school 20.8% 642 77.4 (3), <.001 27.7% 811 65.7 (3), <.001
  High school graduate &/or some post-secondary 16.7% 2087 19.2% 2466
  Post-secondary degree/diploma 11.4% 10,663 16.5% 10,452
  Not answered 17.6% 25 15.8% 16
Physical Health
 Morbidities
  No health conditions 6.4% 2702 527.4 (3), <.001 8.1% 2163 586.0 (3), <.001
  1 health condition 8.7% 3783 10.7% 3344
  2 health conditions 11.8% 3121 17.6% 3128
  3 health conditions 23.4% 3811 27.7% 5110
 Hypertension levels
  Normal 11.9% 4008 9.60 (4), .048 15.1% 5869 67.4 (4), <.001
  Elevated 10.5% 1144 17.6% 1441
  Stage 1 hypertension 13.4% 2515 20.4% 1823
  Stage 2 hypertension 13.5% 1593 18.7% 1283
  Taking anti-hypertensive 12.8% 4157 21.4% 3329
 Chronic pain
  No pain 9.8% 10,651 376.1 (2), <.001 13.6% 9918 416.4 (2), <.001
  Pain 24.4% 2175 29.1% 3206
  Refused 20.8% 591 25.9% 621
Health Behaviors
 Smoking lifetime
   ≥ 100 cigarettes 14.6% 7614 61.3 (1), <.001 18.8% 6870 14.4 (1), <.001
   < 100 cigarettes 10.1% 5803 16.4% 6875
 Binge drinking
  No binge drinking 13.1% 8076 15.5 (2), <.001 18.5% 9476 15.0 (2), .001
  Regular binge drinking 13.1% 2562 16.6% 1744
  Occasional binge drinking 10.5% 2779 15.5% 2525
 Physical activity
  Never or seldom 12.3% 11,588 28.8 (2), <.001 17.6% 11,676 33.9 (2), <.001
  Sometimes or often 11.4% 1274 14.4% 1501
  No answer or refused 20.3% 555 25.9% 568
Nutrition Status Indicators
 BMI
  Underweight: < 18.5 33.3% 48 47.4 (3), <.001 24.1% 144 75.7 (3), <.001
  Healthy: ≥ 18.5 - <  25 11.3% 3229 14.8% 4848
  Overweight: ≥ 25- < 30 11.5% 6176 17.2% 4804
  Obese: ≥ 30 14.9% 3964 21.8% 3949
 Waist-to-hip ratio
  Low risk 10.7% 1313 4.48 (1), .034 16.1% 7951 32.6 (1), <.001
  High risk 12.7% 12,104 19.9% 5794
 Waist-to-height ratio
  Below cut-off 11.2% 8446 34.9 (1), <.001 15.6% 9685 91.7 (1), <.001
  Above cut-off 14.7% 4971 22.6% 4060
 Body fat percent
  0–26% 10.5% 4671 73.1 (4), <.001 15.4% 313 82.0 (4), <.001
  26–31% 12.3% 4482 13.7% 944
  31–36% 14.2% 3032 14.1% 2443
  36–41% 19.6% 961 16.7% 4271
  41–59% 18.8% 271 21.1% 5774
 Disease risk
  Least risk 11.6% 3235 44.5 (3), <.001 14.8% 4729 76.5 (3), <.001
  Increased 11.0% 4438 17.1% 2690
  High 12.4% 2139 17.8% 2541
  Very high 15.7% 3605 22.1% 3785
 Grip strength
  No under-nutrition 11.1% 10,111 96.3 (2), <.001 16.2% 10,713 81.8 (2), <.001
  Under-nutrition 17.1% 2654 24.1% 1843
  Not assessed 20.2% 652   23.4% 1189
 Nutritional risk
  Low risk 7.7% 8452 524.5 (2), <.001 11.2% 8312 649.8 (2), <.001
  High risk 21.7% 4269 28.7% 4751
  Not assessed 18.6% 696 25.3% 682
 Skeletal Muscle Index (SMI)
  No sarcopenia 18.0% 2135 57.4 (1), <.001 17.6% 13,739 0.14 (1), .706
  Sarcopenia 11.7% 11,282 12.5% 6
 T-scores
  Normal 12.4% 12,421 1.58 (2), .454 17.2% 8589 3.66 (2), .161
  Osteopenia 12.9% 63 19.3% 1154
  Osteoporosis 14.1% 933 18.2% 4002
 Screen for anemia
  Negative 12.0% 10,448 15.6 (2), <.001 17.4% 11,316 2.30 (2), .317
  Positive 16.5% 1049 23.0% 96
  No consent for sample 13.5% 1920 18.2% 2333
Dietary Intakes
 Average daily intakes of fiber sources
  0 to < 1 13.2% 4151 6.48 (3), .091 19.2% 4625 21.8 (3), <.001
   ≥ 1 to < 2 12.2% 6334 16.0% 6507
   ≥ 2 to < 3 11.5% 2305 18.2% 2134
   ≥ 3 14.5% 627 19.9% 479
 Average daily intakes of pulses and nuts
  0 to < 0.5 14.6% 4293 27.9 (3), <.001 19.7% 4468 20.56 (3), <.001
   ≥ 0.5 to < 1 12.1% 3262 16.6% 3004
   ≥ 1 to < 2 11.0% 4986 16.8% 5354
   ≥ 2 12.6% 876 15.5% 919
 Average daily intakes of fat sources
  0 to < 2.5 14.9% 1649 18.1 (3), <.001 19.0% 1715 4.87 (3), .182
   ≥ 2.5 to < 4 12.3% 5127 17.3% 5128
   ≥ 4 to < 5 10.9% 3232 16.7% 3398
   ≥ 5 13.2% 3409 18.1% 3504
 Intakes of fish
  No consumption 21.0% 1121 82.9 (1), <.001 22.1% 1150 17.3 (1), <.001
  Consumes fish 11.7% 12,296 17.2% 12,595
 Intakes of omega-3 eggs
  No consumption 12.8% 10,099 3.18 (1), .075 18.2% 9959 9.61 (1), .002
  Consumes omega-3 eggs 11.7% 3318 16.0% 3786
 Average daily intakes of fruits and vegetables
  0 to < 2 18.3% 2631 119.0 (4), <.001 29.6% 1284 150.4 (4), <.001
   ≥ 2 to < 3 13.0% 3787 19.8% 2723
   ≥ 3 to < 4 10.1% 3387 17.5% 3381
   ≥ 4 to < 6 9.6% 2865 15.1% 4499
   ≥ 6 13.1% 747 14.4% 1858
 Average daily intakes of pure fruit juice
  No consumption 12.8% 3430 0.63 (2), .730 17.5% 5334 12.6 (2), .002
   ≤ 1 per day 12.4% 9613 17.4% 8214
   > 1 per day 13.4% 374 27.4% 197
 Average daily intakes of salty snacks
  No consumption 12.7% 2385 4.13 (2), .127 16.9% 2742 0.97 (2), .615
   >  0 to ≤1 12.4% 11,004 17.7% 10,973
   > 1 to ≤10 25.0% 28 20.7% 30
 Average daily intakes of calcium sources with high vitamin D content
   >  0 to < 1 13.6% 3007 19.4 (3), <.001 18.7% 3027 6.12 (3), .106
   ≥ 1 to < 2 11.4% 6227 17.4% 6084
   ≥ 2 to < 4 13.1% 3717 16.7% 4130
   ≥ 4 16.8% 466 19.5% 504
 Average daily intakes of calcium sources with low vitamin D content
  No consumption 15.2% 3343 26.0 (1), <.001 21.5% 1625 17.8 (1), <.001
   > 0 11.7% 10,074 17.1% 12,120
 Average daily intakes of pastries
  No consumption 14.1% 1190 3.16 (2), .206 18.0% 1565 7.75 (2), .021
   > 0 to ≤1 12.4% 11,983 17.4% 11,958
   > 1 to ≤13 11.1% 244 24.6% 222
 Average weekly intakes of chocolate bars
  No consumption 11.9% 4542 30.4 (2), <.001 15.8% 4858 38.4 (2), <.001
   > 0 to ≤0.6 12.4% 8361 18.0% 8177
   > 0.6 20.4% 514 25.1% 710