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Table 1 Key information and data collection tools

From: Delays to diagnosis among people with severe mental illness in rural Vietnam, a population-based cross-sectional survey

VariableToolDescription
Individual level (people with SMI)
Primary outcome
 Delay to diagnosisTwo questions:The interval was measured in months. This interval also included the time period of having prior diagnoses such as depression, or anxiety.
 Time when abnormal symptoms were first noticed by family members
 Time of the first formal diagnosis of a psychotic illness
Associated factors
 Functioning scaleAdapted version of the Specific Level of Functioning Scale (SLOF)The SLOF is a multidimensional assessment instrument which is widely used to assess people with psychotic disorders [34]. The instrument consists of six subscales and has a total of 43 items: Physical functioning (5 items), personal care skills (7 items), interpersonal relationships (7 items), social acceptability (7 items), activities (11 items), and work skills (6 items). Each item is rated using a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (poorest function) to 5 (best function). Higher scores indicate more independent functioning [35]. In this study, an adapted version of this instrument with four subscales (interpersonal relationship, social acceptability, activities and work skills) was used. This tool was translated, cultural verification, back translation and pilot tested in Vietnam.
 IncomeStudy-specific questions of personal income of people with SMIThe personal annual income of people with SMI included the income from the paid job, monthly financial support from the government, and other sources such as donations, or gifts from relatives. The income was measured by month.
 ExpenseStudy-specific questions of personal expenses of people with SMIThe personal annual expense of people with SMI covered all costs related to daily living (food, clothes), productivity of household members lost because of caring for people with an SMI, finding them when they wandered, compensation for any property that had been destroyed, and health service use (inpatients, and outpatient services). These costs of living expense were measured by month. The productivity loss was measured by day. Other costs were measured by year.
Household level (household having people with SMI)
 Economic statusStudy specific single question about economic statusSubjective self-assessment of household heads in terms of their household economic status when compared to the local standard. There were five options: Very poor, poor, average, better off, and rich.
 Household sizeNumber of people living in the familyHousehold members were defined as people living and having meals together at least 6 six months.
 Social capitalShort version of the modified Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool (SASCAT) [36]The Short SASCAT was developed in a multi-country cohort study Young Lives. It is a quantitative tool used to measure the household social capital. The instrument consists of 20 items. This tool was validated in Vietnam and Peru with translation validity, criterion validity, and cognitive validity. It was reported as a valuable tool with known constructs and internal links among variables [36]. The response categories of yes/no.