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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratios of Characteristics Associated With Membership in the Chronic, Relapse, and Gradual Recovery Classes Compared With the Rapid Recovery Class (n = 1704)

From: Longitudinal trajectories of comorbid PTSD and depression symptoms among U.S. service members and veterans

  na % Chronic (24.2%) Relapse (29.1%) Gradual Recovery (14.4%)
aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI
Demographics
Ageb
 10-year increment 29.1 (8.6) 1.67 1.21, 2.30 1.01 0.77, 1.31 1.31 0.76, 2.25
Sex
 Male 1038 60.9 Referent Referent Referent
 Female 666 39.1 0.83 0.51, 1.33 0.93 0.63, 1.39 1.14 0.57, 2.25
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white 1215 71.3 Referent Referent Referent
 Non-Hispanic black 210 12.3 1.51 0.85, 2.68 1.32 0.79, 2.20 1.63 0.72, 3.65
 Hispanic 161 9.5 2.21 1.16, 4.16 0.76 0.41, 1.40 2.06 0.60, 7.00
 Other 118 6.9 1.38 0.66, 2.89 0.78 0.38, 1.61 0.67 0.08, 5.67
Marital status
 Single or never married 624 36.6 Referent Referent Referent
 Currently married 744 43.7 0.90 0.57, 1.42 1.07 0.71, 1.61 0.89 0.48, 1.63
 Widowed, divorced, or separated 336 19.7 1.09 0.60, 1.97 1.45 0.83, 2.54 0.81 0.33, 1.99
Education
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 256 15.0 Referent Referent Referent
 Some college 1011 59.3 2.01 0.97, 4.14 1.14 0.66, 1.96 1.97 0.32, 11.96
 High school or less 436 25.6 2.62 1.19, 5.73 0.94 0.51, 1.73 2.05 0.30, 13.76
Military characteristics
Service branch
 Army 987 57.9 Referent Referent Referent
 Navy, Coast Guard 281 16.5 0.49 0.26, 0.94 0.69 0.43, 1.10 1.76 0.70, 4.39
 Marine Corps 191 11.2 1.18 0.65, 2.13 0.87 0.48, 1.56 1.04 0.49, 2.18
 Air Force 245 14.4 0.59 0.30, 1.15 0.74 0.45, 1.22 1.00 0.46, 2.16
Service Component
 Active duty 1140 66.9 Referent Referent Referent
 Reserve, National Guard 564 33.1 0.90 0.59, 1.35 0.70 0.48, 1.02 0.91 0.50, 1.67
Pay grade
 Officer 112 6.6 Referent Referent Referent
 Enlisted 1592 93.4 0.90 0.33, 2.42 1.91 0.82, 4.40 0.73 0.18, 2.91
Deployment/Combatc
 None 1186 69.6 Referent Referent Referent
 Deployed, no combat 75 4.4 1.08 0.41, 2.84 0.72 0.34, 1.49 1.18 0.44, 3.15
 Deployed with combat 442 25.9 4.28 2.58, 7.07 1.63 1.05, 2.52 1.75 0.89, 3.44
Stressful life events
Childhood physical abuse
 Never 604 35.5 Referent Referent Referent
 Once or more 695 40.8 1.08 0.61, 1.88 2.42 1.49, 3.92 0.92 0.42, 2.01
 Prefer not to answer 61 3.6 3.40 0.72, 15.73 2.11 0.55, 7.96 4.34 0.63, 29.6
Childhood sexual abuse
 Never 971 57.0 Referent Referent Referent
 Once or more 321 18.8 1.32 0.75, 2.30 0.76 0.46, 1.24 1.28 0.50, 3.24
 Prefer not to answer 69 4.1 0.63 0.23, 1.71 0.42 0.16, 1.07 0.65 0.14, 2.90
Childhood verbal abuse
 Never 622 36.5 Referent Referent Referent
 Once or more 676 39.7 1.37 0.79, 2.35 1.38 0.83, 2.30 1.79 0.75, 4.25
 Prefer not to answer 64 3.8 1.28 0.34, 4.72 3.44 1.09, 10.73 0.59 0.07, 4.55
Childhood neglect
 Never 963 56.5 Referent Referent Referent
 Once or more 346 20.3 1.57 0.87, 2.84 1.19 0.70, 2.03 0.72 0.27, 1.92
 Prefer not to answer 56 3.3 2.50 0.59, 10.34 0.90 0.26, 3.02 1.43 0.12, 16.46
Sexual assault
 Not endorsed 1291 75.8 Referent Referent Referent
 Endorsed 399 23.4 1.13 0.67, 1.89 1.02 0.63, 1.64 0.73 0.33, 1.58
Physical assault
 Not endorsed 1274 74.8 Referent Referent Referent
 Endorsed 404 23.7 2.65 1.57, 4.44 1.39 0.85, 2.26 2.03 0.99, 4.14
Disabling injury/illness
 Not endorsed 1304 76.5 Referent Referent Referent
 Endorsed 375 22.0 2.26 1.30, 3.93 1.40 0.85, 2.27 2.88 1.42, 5.81
Other life eventsd
 Not endorsed 691 40.6 Referent Referent Referent
 Endorsed 1000 58.7 1.08 0.67, 1.73 0.86 0.57, 1.30 0.88 0.42, 1.83
Behavioral characteristics, mental health, and comorbid conditions
Body mass index, kg/m2
 Healthy 617 36.2 Referent Referent Referent
 Overweight 771 45.3 1.14 0.71, 1.82 1.32 0.91, 1.90 0.77 0.32, 1.84
 Obese 293 17.2 1.24 0.67, 2.28 1.67 1.00, 2.76 1.12 0.34, 3.62
Smoking status
 Never 683 40.1 Referent Referent Referent
 Former smoker 420 24.7 1.00 0.62, 1.61 1.20 0.81, 1.78 1.52 0.77, 2.98
 Current smoker 546 32.0 0.87 0.54, 1.38 0.92 0.60, 1.42 1.33 0.51, 3.42
Alcohol problems
 None 1134 66.6 Referent Referent Referent
 Positive for alcohol problems 549 32.2 1.51 0.99, 2.29 0.90 0.59, 1.36 1.72 0.96, 3.06
Sleep duration, hours
 < 5 466 27.4 1.24 0.61, 2.48 0.76 0.43, 1.34 1.76 0.60, 5.15
 5 to < 7 835 49.0 0.86 0.45, 1.63 1.06 0.64, 1.73 1.25 0.47, 3.26
 7 to < 9 171 10.0 Referent Referent Referent
 ≥9 192 11.3 1.14 0.50, 2.61 0.72 0.35, 1.48 2.75 1.00, 7.48
Social supporte
 Not bothered 269 15.8 Referent Referent Referent
 Bothered a little 506 29.7 1.92 1.06, 3.44 0.89 0.54, 1.48 1.63 0.64, 4.09
 Bothered a lot 914 53.6 3.49 1.85, 6.54 0.83 0.42, 1.59 4.14 1.12, 15.14
Other anxiety syndrome
 Negative 842 49.4 Referent Referent Referent
 Positive 812 47.7 4.27 2.42, 7.49 0.93 0.45, 1.91 7.40 2.25, 24.05
Bodily painb,f
 Continuous (scaled from 0 to 4) 3.52 (0.24) 1.86 1.44, 2.39 1.14 0.93, 1.39 1.02 0.72, 1.44
Somatic symptoms
 0–9 469 27.5 Referent Referent Referent
 10–14 611 35.9 0.82 0.49, 1.37 1.24 0.81, 1.90 0.85 0.37, 1.95
  ≥ 15 613 36.0 1.84 1.08, 3.12 1.09 0.65, 1.80 1.84 0.80, 4.19
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval; Bolded values are statistically significant with all p-values<0.05
  2. a Some variables do not add up to 1704 due to missing data. Full information maximum likelihood was performed to account for missing data and estimate values based on all data that was available
  3. b Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation)
  4. c Deployment dates based on data from Defense Manpower Data Center. Combat based on positive endorsement of any of the following combat exposures: witnessing death due to war, disaster, or tragic event; or witnessing instances of physical abuse, dead and/or decomposing bodies, maimed soldiers or civilians, or prisoners of war or refugees
  5. d Endorsement of any of the following stressful life events: divorce, finances, or sexual harassment
  6. e Measured based on Patient Health Questionnaire question, “In the last 4 weeks, how much have you been bothered by having no one to turn to when you have a problem?”
  7. f Higher score indicates more bodily pain