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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratios of Characteristics Associated With Membership in the Chronic, Relapse, and Gradual Recovery Classes Compared With the Rapid Recovery Class (n = 1704)

From: Longitudinal trajectories of comorbid PTSD and depression symptoms among U.S. service members and veterans

 na%Chronic (24.2%)Relapse (29.1%)Gradual Recovery (14.4%)
aOR95% CIaOR95% CIaOR95% CI
Demographics
Ageb
 10-year increment29.1 (8.6)1.671.21, 2.301.010.77, 1.311.310.76, 2.25
Sex
 Male103860.9ReferentReferentReferent
 Female66639.10.830.51, 1.330.930.63, 1.391.140.57, 2.25
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white121571.3ReferentReferentReferent
 Non-Hispanic black21012.31.510.85, 2.681.320.79, 2.201.630.72, 3.65
 Hispanic1619.52.211.16, 4.160.760.41, 1.402.060.60, 7.00
 Other1186.91.380.66, 2.890.780.38, 1.610.670.08, 5.67
Marital status
 Single or never married62436.6ReferentReferentReferent
 Currently married74443.70.900.57, 1.421.070.71, 1.610.890.48, 1.63
 Widowed, divorced, or separated33619.71.090.60, 1.971.450.83, 2.540.810.33, 1.99
Education
 Bachelor’s degree or higher25615.0ReferentReferentReferent
 Some college101159.32.010.97, 4.141.140.66, 1.961.970.32, 11.96
 High school or less43625.62.621.19, 5.730.940.51, 1.732.050.30, 13.76
Military characteristics
Service branch
 Army98757.9ReferentReferentReferent
 Navy, Coast Guard28116.50.490.26, 0.940.690.43, 1.101.760.70, 4.39
 Marine Corps19111.21.180.65, 2.130.870.48, 1.561.040.49, 2.18
 Air Force24514.40.590.30, 1.150.740.45, 1.221.000.46, 2.16
Service Component
 Active duty114066.9ReferentReferentReferent
 Reserve, National Guard56433.10.900.59, 1.350.700.48, 1.020.910.50, 1.67
Pay grade
 Officer1126.6ReferentReferentReferent
 Enlisted159293.40.900.33, 2.421.910.82, 4.400.730.18, 2.91
Deployment/Combatc
 None118669.6ReferentReferentReferent
 Deployed, no combat754.41.080.41, 2.840.720.34, 1.491.180.44, 3.15
 Deployed with combat44225.94.282.58, 7.071.631.05, 2.521.750.89, 3.44
Stressful life events
Childhood physical abuse
 Never60435.5ReferentReferentReferent
 Once or more69540.81.080.61, 1.882.421.49, 3.920.920.42, 2.01
 Prefer not to answer613.63.400.72, 15.732.110.55, 7.964.340.63, 29.6
Childhood sexual abuse
 Never97157.0ReferentReferentReferent
 Once or more32118.81.320.75, 2.300.760.46, 1.241.280.50, 3.24
 Prefer not to answer694.10.630.23, 1.710.420.16, 1.070.650.14, 2.90
Childhood verbal abuse
 Never62236.5ReferentReferentReferent
 Once or more67639.71.370.79, 2.351.380.83, 2.301.790.75, 4.25
 Prefer not to answer643.81.280.34, 4.723.441.09, 10.730.590.07, 4.55
Childhood neglect
 Never96356.5ReferentReferentReferent
 Once or more34620.31.570.87, 2.841.190.70, 2.030.720.27, 1.92
 Prefer not to answer563.32.500.59, 10.340.900.26, 3.021.430.12, 16.46
Sexual assault
 Not endorsed129175.8ReferentReferentReferent
 Endorsed39923.41.130.67, 1.891.020.63, 1.640.730.33, 1.58
Physical assault
 Not endorsed127474.8ReferentReferentReferent
 Endorsed40423.72.651.57, 4.441.390.85, 2.262.030.99, 4.14
Disabling injury/illness
 Not endorsed130476.5ReferentReferentReferent
 Endorsed37522.02.261.30, 3.931.400.85, 2.272.881.42, 5.81
Other life eventsd
 Not endorsed69140.6ReferentReferentReferent
 Endorsed100058.71.080.67, 1.730.860.57, 1.300.880.42, 1.83
Behavioral characteristics, mental health, and comorbid conditions
Body mass index, kg/m2
 Healthy61736.2ReferentReferentReferent
 Overweight77145.31.140.71, 1.821.320.91, 1.900.770.32, 1.84
 Obese29317.21.240.67, 2.281.671.00, 2.761.120.34, 3.62
Smoking status
 Never68340.1ReferentReferentReferent
 Former smoker42024.71.000.62, 1.611.200.81, 1.781.520.77, 2.98
 Current smoker54632.00.870.54, 1.380.920.60, 1.421.330.51, 3.42
Alcohol problems
 None113466.6ReferentReferentReferent
 Positive for alcohol problems54932.21.510.99, 2.290.900.59, 1.361.720.96, 3.06
Sleep duration, hours
 < 546627.41.240.61, 2.480.760.43, 1.341.760.60, 5.15
 5 to < 783549.00.860.45, 1.631.060.64, 1.731.250.47, 3.26
 7 to < 917110.0ReferentReferentReferent
 ≥919211.31.140.50, 2.610.720.35, 1.482.751.00, 7.48
Social supporte
 Not bothered26915.8ReferentReferentReferent
 Bothered a little50629.71.921.06, 3.440.890.54, 1.481.630.64, 4.09
 Bothered a lot91453.63.491.85, 6.540.830.42, 1.594.141.12, 15.14
Other anxiety syndrome
 Negative84249.4ReferentReferentReferent
 Positive81247.74.272.42, 7.490.930.45, 1.917.402.25, 24.05
Bodily painb,f
 Continuous (scaled from 0 to 4)3.52 (0.24)1.861.44, 2.391.140.93, 1.391.020.72, 1.44
Somatic symptoms
 0–946927.5ReferentReferentReferent
 10–1461135.90.820.49, 1.371.240.81, 1.900.850.37, 1.95
  ≥ 1561336.01.841.08, 3.121.090.65, 1.801.840.80, 4.19
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval; Bolded values are statistically significant with all p-values<0.05
  2. a Some variables do not add up to 1704 due to missing data. Full information maximum likelihood was performed to account for missing data and estimate values based on all data that was available
  3. b Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation)
  4. c Deployment dates based on data from Defense Manpower Data Center. Combat based on positive endorsement of any of the following combat exposures: witnessing death due to war, disaster, or tragic event; or witnessing instances of physical abuse, dead and/or decomposing bodies, maimed soldiers or civilians, or prisoners of war or refugees
  5. d Endorsement of any of the following stressful life events: divorce, finances, or sexual harassment
  6. e Measured based on Patient Health Questionnaire question, “In the last 4 weeks, how much have you been bothered by having no one to turn to when you have a problem?”
  7. f Higher score indicates more bodily pain