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Table 2 Prevalence, cases, and ORs for postpartum depression assessed using EPDS according to education level

From: Education level and risk of postpartum depression: results from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

 Highest education levelp-value for trend
≥16 years
(n = 19,621)
>12–<16 years
(n = 38,030)
≤12 years
(n = 32,543)
1 month
 Prevalence, %11.613.217.7 
 Cases, n227150105768 
 OR (95% CI)
  Crude1.001.16(1.10–1.22)1.65(1.56–1.73)< .001
  Model 11.001.14(1.08–1.20)1.48(1.40–1.56)< .001
  Model 21.001.07(1.01–1.13)1.26(1.19–1.34)< .001
6 months
 Prevalence, %9.0 10.5 15.2  
 Cases, n1768 3975 4933  
 OR (95% CI)
  Crude1.001.18(1.11–1.25)1.80(1.70–1.92)< .001
  Model 11.001.15(1.09–1.23)1.57(1.48–1.67)< .001
  Model 21.001.03(0.97–1.10)1.21(1.13–1.29)< .001
  1. The table shows the imputed data for the 90,194 mothers in the study
  2. Boldface indicates statistical significance at the level of 5%
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
  4. Cases: a total EPDS score of ≥9
  5. Crude: crude model
  6. Model 1: Partial model adjusted for physician-diagnosed history of depression, anxiety disorder, dysautonomia, and schizophrenia
  7. Model 2: Full model adjusted for all the covariates of the model 1; maternal age; body mass index; parity; smoking status; alcohol intake; physical activity; employment status; feeding method; marital status; annual household income; and passive smoking status