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Table 3 Logistic regression analyses of variables associated with dispensed ADHD medication and OAT

From: Dispensation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in patients receiving opioid agonist therapy; a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 2015 to 2017

 201520162017
Dispensed ADHD medicationN = 274N = 312N = 349
Not dispensed ADHD medicationN = 7546N = 7378N = 7236
 Crude ORAdjusted OR (95% CI)Crude ORAdjusted OR (95% CI)Crude ORAdjusted OR (95% CI)
Age
 - ≤ 251.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)
 - 26–351.81.8 (0.7–4.5)1.31.3 (0.6–2.9)0.80.8 (0.4–1.7)
 - 36–451.41.5 (0.6–2.7)0.91.0 (0.5–2.2)0.70.7 (0.4–1.5)
 - 46–550.91.0 (0.4–2.6)0.60.7 (0.3–1.6)0.50.5 (0.2–1.0)
 - ≥ 560.40.5 (0.2–1.4)0.30.4 (0.2–0.9)0.30.3 (0.1–0.6)
Gender
 - Female1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)
 - Male1.11.0 (0.8–1.4)1.11.0 (0.8–1.3)1.21.2 (1.0–1.6)
The number of dispensations of OAT opioids per calendar year
 - ≥ 521.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)
 - 13–510.91.0 (0.7–1.4)0.70.8 (0.6–1.2)1.11.1 (0.8–1.7)
 - 7–120.70.8 (0.5–1.3)0.80.9 (0.6–1.3)1.31.3 (0.9–2.0)
 - 1–60.70.7 (0.4–1.2)0.91.0 (0.7–1.6)1.01.0 (0.6–1.7)
OAT opioidsa
 - Methadone (incl. Levomethadone)1.0 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.00 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)1.0 (ref.)
 - Buprenorphine (incl. combinations)2.01.7 (1.3–2.3)2.21.9 (1.4–2.5)1.91.6 (1.3–2.1)
Dispensed opioids (excl. OAT opioids)1.01.1 (0.8–1.5)1.01.1 (0.8–1.5)1.41.5 (1.1–1.9)
Dispensed gabapentinoids0.80.9 (0.5–1.4)1.21.2 (0.8–1.7)1.11.0 (0.7–1.4)
Dispensed benzodiazepines and/or z-hypnotics0.81.0 (0.7–1.2)0.80.9 (0.7–1.2)1.01.0 (0.8–1.3)
Dispensed DAA0.81.0 (0.5–2.1)1.11.4 (0.9–2.3)1.41.6 (1.2–2.2)
  1. ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD medication Atomoxetine, racemic amphetamine, dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine, and methylphenidate, CI confidence interval, DAA direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C infection, and OAT opioid agonist therapy
  2. a The last OAT opioid was dispensed during a calendar year recorded in the Norwegian Prescription Database
  3. The table displays odds ratios for each independent variable among patients who were dispensed ADHD medication (dependent variable) and OAT. For example, the adjusted odds of being dispensed opioids in 2017 was 1.5 among patients who were dispensed ADHD medication. Each independent variable is stated as crude (unadjusted) and adjusted for each calendar year. Italics display significant values