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Table 4 Service use by ASD+ at baseline, 6 and 12 months for the past 6 months

From: Clinical and cost effectiveness of staff training in the delivery of Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) for adults with intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder and challenging behaviour - randomised trial

Publicly financed health care services Baseline6 months12 months
InterventionTAUInterventionTAUInterventionTAU
N = 47N = 66N = 44N = 62N = 44N = 63
GP (any type of contact)N (%)a43 (91%)54 (82%)36 (82%)53 (85%)37 (84%)51 (81%)
Meanb (SD)4.3 (3.9)5.5 (8.8)3.6 (3.6)5.7 (6.9)3.4 (3.4)4.3 (4.6)
Community nurse (District, ID)N (%)25 (53%)25 (38%)20 (45%)16 (26%)18 (41%)19 (30%)
Mean (SD)4.0 (4.9)2.9 (2.6)5.2 (6.1)2.1 (1.6)5.7 (9.4)4.3 (7.1)
PsychiatristN (%)34 (72%)40 (61%)29 (67%)t37 (60%)26 (59%)38 (60%)
Mean (SD)1.6 (1.6)1.7 (0.8)1.4 (0.7)2.0 (1.8)1.3 (1.0)2.1 (1.6)
Other health professionalsN (%)17 (36%)23 (35%)13 (30%)24 (39%)19 (43%)28 (44%)
Mean (SD)8.2 (19.1)7.1 (9.8)10.6 (19.6)10.2 (18.9)6.4 (11.6)6.5 (8.0)
Social Care including Community Support workersN (%)31 (66%)23 (35%)24 (55%)27 (44%)24 (55%)35 (56%)
Mean (SD)19.5 (54.4)7.7 (26.8)22.2 (56.0)9.0 (17.8)18.5 (51.7)18.5 (46.1)
PhysiotherapyN (%)3 (6%)5 (8%)1 (2.3%)6 (10%)3 (7%)2 (3%)
Mean (SD)1 (0)10.8 (9.7)210.7 (11.6)4.7 (6.4)6.5 (7.8)
DentistN (%)32 (68%)38 (58%)29 (67%)37 (60%)29 (66%)34 (54%)
Mean (SD)1.5 (1.3)1.5 (1.1)1.6 (2.1)1.9 (2.6)1.4 (0.84)1.4 (0.7)
Acute and Specialist Services
Inpatient/acute psychiatric wardN (%)01 (2%)0001 (2%)
Bed daysMean (SD)21   188
General Medical
AdmissionsN (%)1 (2%)3 (5%)002 (5%)0
Mean (SD) 1 (0)  2 (0) 
Bed DaysMean (SD)51.7 (1.2)  11.5 (13.4)
Medical ICUc/HDUd
AdmissionsN (%)1 (2%)00000
Mean (SD)      
Bed DaysMean (SD)6     
A&E Attendance (Physical Health)N (%)7 (15%)13 (20%)4 (10%)13 (21%)5 (11%)5 (8%)
Mean (SD)1.1 (0.9)1.5 (1.8)1 (0)1.9 (2.5)1.4 (0.5)2 (1.7)
A&E Attendance (Mental Health)N (%)01 (2%)001 (2%)2 (3%)
Mean (SD)    1.5 (0.7)
Psychiatric outpatientN (%)10 (21%)16 (24%)10 (24%)21 (34%)9 (21%)15 (24%)
Mean (SD)1.5 (0.7)1.6 (0.8)1.2 (0.7)1.9 (1.5)2 (1.7)1.5 (0.9)
Day patient procedureN (%)3 (6%)15 (23%)10 (24%)18 (29%)9 (21%)15 (25%)
Mean (SD)1.3 (0.6)1.5 (0.7)1.4 (0.9)1.4 (0.7)1.4 (1.0)1.8 (1.3)
Medical outpatientN (%)8 (17%)15 (23%)3 (7%)11 (18%)5 (11%)7 (11%)
Mean (SD)2.9 (3.8)1.7 (1.2)4.3 (2.5)3.1 (5.6)2.3 (1.3)6.4 (8.5)
  1. aN = number of participants reporting use of the service in the past 6 months; b: Mean contacts calculated for those that used the service; c: intensive care unit (ICU); d: high dependency unit (HDU); mean (SD) refers to the number of times individuals used a specific service