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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample and its association with PHQ-9 scores

From: Normative data and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in a nationally representative Korean population

 N (%)PHQ-9 mean (SEM)Group differenceCohen’s effect size
Sex  P < 0.001*0.29
 Male4543 (49.1)2.14 (0.05)  
 Female6216 (50.9)3.28 (0.05)  
Age group  P < 0.001*0.24
 19–291249 (18.5)3.09 (0.08)  
 30–391893 (18.8)2.96 (0.06)  
 40–491933 (20.6)2.31 (0.07)  
 50–592009 (19.9)2.45 (0.08)  
 60–691857 (12.0)2.66 (0.08)  
 70–791439 (7.9)3.21 (0.1)  
 80+379 (2.2)3.37 (0.21)  
Education years  P < 0.001*0.29
 62441 (15.8)3.57 (0.1)  
 91135 (9.2)2.85 (0.13)  
 123483 (37.2)2.66 (0.05)  
 183689 (37.8)2.45 (0.06)  
Employment  P < 0.001*0.24
 Yes6319 (62.9)2.39 (0.04)  
 No4434 (37.1)3.34 (0.07)  
Household income  P < 0.001*0.24
 Lowest2051 (15.3)4.18 (0.12)  
 Second2664 (23.9)2.86 (0.06)  
 Third3015 (30.2)2.39 (0.05)  
 Highest fourth2999 (30.6)2.28 (0.05)  
Habitation area  P = 0.6330.02
 Urban8711 (84.3)2.73 (0.04)  
 Rural2048 (15.7)2.81 (0.12)  
Marital status  P < 0.001*0.68
 Married7677 (67.1)2.39 (0.04)  
 Separated54 (0.5)4.78 (0.74)  
 Widowed953 (6.0)3.83 (0.15)  
 Divorced419 (3.7)4.60 (0.22)  
 Never married1652 (22.7)3.16 (0.09)  
Cohabitation  P < 0.001*0.38
 None1128 (8.7)4.01 (0.12)  
 13179 (24.2)2.79 (0.07)  
 2 or more6452 (67.1)2.56 (0.04)  
  1. Values are presented as unweighted frequency, weighted percentage, and weighted mean (SEM). * indicates p < 0.001