Skip to main content

Table 3 Scale scores (mean ± S.D.) of the six factors in healthy volunteers (controls, n = 738), bipolar I (n = 207), bipolar II (n = 265) and major depressive (n = 192) disorder patients

From: Symptom continuum reported by affective disorder patients through a structure-validated questionnaire

FactorControlsBipolar IBipolar IIMajor depressiveCohen’s d
Psychomotor Acceleration5.69 ± 2.287.21 ± 1.36a7.28 ± 1.08a3.59 ± 2.72abc.719 ~ 1.962
Hopelessness1.92 ± 1.932.89 ± 2.25a5.46 ± 3.15ab7.22 ± 2.61abc.484 ~ 2.538
Suicide Tendency.15 ± .58.43 ± 1.08a1.23 ± 1.98ab2.24 ± 2.28abc.389 ~ 1.807
Overactivation1.19 ± 1.424.24 ± 1.28a1.03 ± 1.12b.90 ± 1.04ab.215 ~ 2.853
Retardation1.22 ± 1.421.77 ± 1.913.55 ± 2.44ab4.22 ± 2.32abc.280 ~ 1.823
Distraction/ Impulsivity1.85 ± 1.544.33 ± 1.57a3.04 ± 1.44ab2.09 ± 1.40bc.667 ~ 1.604
  1. Note: ap < .01 vs. controls; bp < .01 vs. Bipolar I; and cp < .01 vs. Bipolar II