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Table 2 Social support measures used in studies included in this review

From: A systematic review of studies describing the influence of informal social support on psychological wellbeing in people bereaved by sudden or violent causes of death

Measure Type of social support assessed by measure Type of measurement tool Use of measure in included study
Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS) [32] Size and availability of and satisfaction with support network. Structured interview. Bottomley 2017 [31] 12 variables derived. Perceived need for and satisfaction with each of 6 categories: intimate interaction, material aid, advice and information, positive feedback, physical assistance, social participation
Burke 2010 [33] 5 variables derived: available support network for family and non-family, actual support network, anticipated and actual negative relationships
Coppel Index of Social Support (CISS) [35] Structural and functional support Self-report questionnaire. 15 items on a 5 point Likert scale Cowan 1985 [27] Items across domains summed for total score of perceived social support.
Murphy 1988 [28] Items across domains summed for total score of perceived social support.
Crisis Support Scale (CSS) [41, 56]a Received social support Self-report questionnaire.
7 items on a 7 point Likert scale
Kristensen 2010 [40] Scandinavian version.
Factors summed separately to measure positive social support and negative social response.
DUKE-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire [39] Functional social support Self-report questionnaire.
11 items on a 5 point Likert scale
Heeke 2017 [38] Translated version. Items summed for total score of perceived social support.
Inventory of Social Support (ISS) [34]a Perceived social support for grief Self-report questionnaire.
5 items on a 5 point Likert scale
Burke 2010 [33] Items summed for total score of available grief support.
Rheingold 2015 [47] Items summed for total score of perceived social support.
Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) [57] Perceived presence and level of support across three domains: family, friends and significant other. Self-report questionnaire.
12 items on 7 point Likert scale
Bailey 2013 [29] Items across domains summed for total score of perceived social support.
Burke 2010 [33] Items across domains summed for total score of available general support.
Levi-Belz 2015 [42] Items across domains summed for total score of available perceived support.
Levi-Belz 2019 [43] Items across domains summed for total score of perceived support.
Li 2015 [44] Translated version. Items across domains summed for total score of general social support.
Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ) [49, 58] Perceived social support: functional support Self-report questionnaire.
Amount of support from supportive network members listed.
Spino 2016 [48] Network score, relationship score and both combined for total score.
Perceived Social Support Scales, friends and family (PSS-Fr, PSS-Fa) [37] Perceived social support from friends and family Self-report questionnaires.
20 items on a 3 point Likert scale
Fullerton 1999 [36] Items summed for each scale for total score of support from friends and support from family.
Provisions of Social Relations Scale (PSRS) [51] Perceived social support Self-report questionnaire.
18 items on a 5 point Likert scale
Sprang 1998 [50] Family support and friend support subscales combined for a total score of cognitive appraisal of support.
Perceived Social Support Questionnaire (PSSQ) [46] Perceived social support Self-report questionnaire.
6 items on a 5 point Likert scale
Oexle 2019 [45] Items summed for a total score of perceived support.
Social Support Rating Scale
(SSRS) [53]
Subjective support, objective support and support availability Self-report questionnaire developed for Chinese populations.
10 items
Xu 2017 [52] Three domains of social support combined for a total score and categorised into low, medium and high support.
  1. aAssessment tools that have 2 references by their name are those that have been initially described in one study and validated in a separate study. All other assessment tool references include an initial description and validation of the tool in one study