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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD) vs matched comparatorsa with treatment for depression

From: Risk and risk factors for disability pension among patients with treatment resistant depression– a matched cohort study

 TRD N = 3204Comparators N = 3204p
n (%)
Men1363 (42.5)1363 (42.5)matched
Women1841 (57.5)1841 (57.5) 
Age (years)b
 18–291245 (38.9)1251 (39.0)matched
 30–491333 (41.6)1328 (41.5) 
 50–69626 (19.5)625 (19.5) 
Type of living area  matched
 Small municipality842 (26.3)842 (26.3) 
 Medium-sized municipality1109 (34.6)1109 (34.6) 
 Large city1253 (39.1)1253 (39.1) 
Attained education levelb  0.0017
  ≤ 9 years969 (30.2)842 (26.3) 
 10–12 years1442 (45.0)1504 (46.9) 
  ≥ 13 years793 (24.8)858 (26.8) 
Family situationb  0.0942
 Married, living without children296 (9.2)310 (9.7) 
 Married, living with children768 (24.0)695 (21.7) 
 Unmarried, living without children1419 (44.3)1508 (47.1) 
 Unmarried, living with children327 (10.2)299 (9.3) 
  ≤ 20 years, living with parent/−s394 (12.3)392 (12.2) 
Country of birth  < 0.0001
 Sweden2420 (75.5)2647 (82.6) 
 Other European country165 (5.2)123 (3.8) 
 Other than Europe619 (19.3)434 (13.6) 
Long-term sickness absencec429 (13.4)418 (13.1)0.6849
Unemploymentd  0.2803
 1–179 days643 (20.1)620 (19.4) 
  ≥ 180 days185 (5.8)161 (5.0) 
History of depression diagnosis536 (16.7)536 (16.7)matched
History of anxiety disordere621 (19.4)638 (19.9)0.5930
History of personality disordere97 (3.0)87(2.7)0.4544
History of substance use disordere  0.0425
 None2895 (90.4)2847 (88.9) 
 Alcohol only143 (4.5)187 (5.8) 
 Other/mixed166 (5.2)170 (5.3) 
History of other psychiatric disordere190 (5.9)195 (6.1)0.7927
History of self harm/suicide attempte208 (6.5)277 (7.1)0.3454
CCIe, f  0.7685
 03029 (94.5)3016 (94.1) 
 1143 (4.5)155 (4.8) 
  ≥ 232 (1.0)32 (1.0) 
  1. aComparators matched on age, sex, calendar year of the index prescription, history of depression, and size of living area
  2. bAt time of first antidepressant prescription
  3. c > 90 net days in the 365 days preceding first antidepressant prescription
  4. dIn the year preceding first antidepressant prescription
  5. eWithin 5 years before first antidepressant prescription
  6. fCharlson’s comorbidity index [40]