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Table 3 Potential risk factors of severe affective symptoms at 4-month follow-upa

From: Loneliness as a predictor of outcomes in mental disorders among people who have experienced a mental health crisis: a 4-month prospective study

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coefficient 95% CI p-Valueb Coefficientc 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value
Psychosocial variables
 Loneliness (ULS-8) 0.41 0.30, 0.53 < 0.001 0.37 0.24, 0.49 < 0.001 0.34 0.21, 0.47 < 0.001 0.11 −0.02, 0.24 0.10
 Social network size (2 items from LSNS-6)     −0.06 − 0.32, 0.21 0.68 − 0.02 − 0.30, 0.25 0.88 − 0.06 −0.31, 0.19 0.64
 Social capital (HLSSC)     −0.19 −0.40, 0.02 0.08 −0.10 − 0.32, 0.12 0.39 − 0.04 − 0.25, 0.16 0.67
Socio-demographic variables
Born in the UK        0.50 −0.89, 1.89 0.48 0.52 −0.75, 1.80 0.42
Employment
 No        reference      
 In voluntary, protected or sheltered work        −0.95 −2.96, 1.06 0.35 −0.06 −1.92, 1.79 0.95
 In regular employment        −0.70 −2.05, 0.65 0.31 −0.82 −2.06, 0.42 0.19
 Living with a partner or with family        −0.72 −1.94, 0.50 0.25 −0.76 −1.88, 0.36 0.18
Psychiatric variables
Number of years since first contact with mental health services
 Less than 3 months        reference      
 3 months – 1 year        −2.26 −4.56, 0.05 0.06 −1.98 −4.09, 0.14 0.07
 1–2 years        0.44 −2.21, 3.09 0.75 0.78 −1.65, 3.21 0.53
 2–10 years        0.03 −1.72, 1.78 0.97 −0.12 −1.73, 1.49 0.88
 More than 10 years        −0.28 −2.14, 1.58 0.77 −0.48 −2.18, 1.23 0.58
 Diagnosis
 Psychosis        reference      
 Bipolar affective disorder/Manic episode        0.83 −0.99, 2.64 0.37 0.89 −0.78, 2.56 0.29
 Depressive/Anxiety disorders        1.52 −0.06, 3.10 0.06 0.75 −0.72, 2.21 0.32
 Personality disorders        3.16 1.18, 5.14 0.002 2.11 0.27, 3.95 0.03
 Other disorders        0.65 −1.65, 2.96 0.58 −0.40 −2.53, 1.73 0.71
Affective symptoms at baseline (4 items from BPRS)           0.42 0.31, 0.53 < 0.001
R2adj 0.138 0.138 0.168 0.300
  1. CI Confidence Interval, ULS-8 UCLA Loneliness Scale-8, LSNS-6 Lubben Social Network Scale-6, HLSSC Health and Lifestyles Survey Social Capital Questionnaire, BPRS Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, R2adj adjusted-R2
  2. aUsing multivariable linear regression analyses with affective symptoms score at 4-month follow-up as dependent variable and factors with p < 0.25 in both Additional file 1: Tables S2 and S3 as independent variables
  3. bSignificant p-values printed in bold
  4. cNegative regression coefficient = less severe affective symptoms