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Table 4 Potential risk factors of poor self-rated recovery at 4-month follow-upa

From: Loneliness as a predictor of outcomes in mental disorders among people who have experienced a mental health crisis: a 4-month prospective study

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coefficientb 95% CI p-Valuec Coefficient 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value
Psychosocial variables
 Loneliness (ULS-8) −1.38 − 1.71, − 1.05 < 0.001 −1.21 − 1.57, − 0.85 < 0.001 −1.08 − 1.45, − 0.71 < 0.001 − 0.25 −0.63, 0.13 0.19
 Social network size (2 items from LSNS-6)     0.29 −0.47, 1.04 0.45 0.55 −0.24, 1.34 0.17 0.32 −0.38, 1.02 0.37
 Social capital (HLSSC)     0.54 −0.07, 1.15 0.08 0.44 −0.19, 1.08 0.17 0.15 −0.42, 0.17 0.62
Socio-demographic variables
 Born in the UK        −1.38 −5.41, 2.64 0.50 −0.19 −3.78, 3.40 0.92
Employment
 No        reference      
 In voluntary, protected or sheltered work        3.56 −2.25, 9.37 0.23 −0.80 −6.11, 4.52 0.77
 In regular employment        1.05 −2.84, 4.95 0.60 1.34 −2.12, 4.79 0.45
Living with a partner or with family        −0.99 −4.49, 2.51 0.58 0.13 −3.00, 3.27 0.93
Psychiatric variables
Number of years since first contact with mental health services
 Less than 3 months        reference      
 3 months – 1 year        0.40 −6.26, 7.06 0.91 −1.43 −7.43, 4.57 0.64
 1–2 years        −9.90 − 17.41, −2.38 0.01 − 10.72 − 17.40, −4.02 0.002
 2–10 years        −8.78 −13.82, −3.74 0.001 − 7.84 − 12.35, − 3.33 0.001
 More than 10 years        −4.12 −9.47, 1.23 0.13 −4.49 −9.30, 0.32 0.07
Diagnosis
 Psychosis        reference      
 Bipolar affective disorder/Manic episode        0.32 −4.93, 5.56 0.91 −1.55 −6.22, 3.12 0.51
 Depressive/Anxiety disorders        −1.20 −5.76, 3.36 0.60 −0.60 −4.69, 3.48 0.77
 Personality disorders        −3.53 −9.18, 2.12 0.22 −3.09 −8.12, 1.93 0.23
 Other disorders        3.19 −3.46, 9.84 0.35 3.97 −1.97, 9.91 0.19
Self-rated recovery at baseline (QPR)           0.48 0.37, 0.59 < 0.001
R2adj 0.177 0.176 0.219 0.390
  1. CI Confidence Interval, ULS-8 UCLA Loneliness Scale-8, LSNS-6 Lubben Social Network Scale-6, HLSSC Health and Lifestyles Survey Social Capital Questionnaire, QPR Questionnaire on the Process of Recovery, R2adj adjusted-R2
  2. aUsing multivariable linear regression analyses with self-rated recovery score at 4-month follow-up as dependent variable and factors with p < 0.25 in both Additional file 1: Tables S2 and S3 as independent variables
  3. bNegative regression coefficient = poorer self-rated recovery
  4. cSignificant p-values printed in bold