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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and status of depressive symptoms among participants

From: Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, multi-morbid conditions and depressive symptoms among Nepalese older adults

 Total (n = 794)%Depressive symptoms
No (n = 351)%Yes (n = 443)%p-value
Age group (in years)
 60–69440(55.42)201(45.68)239(54.32)0.224
 70–79235(29.60)106(45.11)129(54.89) 
  ≥ 80119(14.99)44(36.97)75(63.03) 
Gender
 Male400(50.38)201(50.25)199(49.75)0.001
 Female394(49.62)150(38.07)244(61.93) 
District
Morang404(50.88)202(50.00)202(50.00)0.001
Sunsari390(49.12)149(38.21)241(61.79) 
Religion
 Hinduism625(78.72)281(44.96)344(55.04)0.356
 Buddhism19(2.39)7(36.84)12(63.16) 
 Islam125(15.74)49(39.20)76(60.80) 
 Christianity25(3.15)14(56.00)11(44.00) 
Ethnicity
Brahmin/Chettri/ Thakur69(8.69)50(72.46)19(27.54) 
 Indigenous298(37.53)138(46.31)160(53.69)< 0.001
Dalit157(19.77)53(33.76)104(66.24) 
Madhesi and other ethnic groups270(34.01)110(40.74)160(59.26) 
Marital status
 Married425(53.53)207(48.71)218(51.29)0.006
1Others369(46.47)144(39.02)225(60.98) 
Literacy
 Illiterate636(80.10)264(41.51)372(58.49)0.002
 literate158(19.90)87(55.06)71(44.94) 
Past occupation
 Employed364(45.84)198(54.40)166(45.60)< 0.001
 Unemployed430(54.16)153(35.58)277(64.42) 
Family monthly income
 Nrs. <= 5000381(47.98)168(44.09)213(55.91)0.039
 Nrs. 5000 < = 10,000145(18.26)52(35.86)93(64.14) 
 Nrs. >  10,000268(33.75)131(48.88)137(51.12) 
  1. 1Others denotes widow/widower/divorced/separated/unmarried. 2Suffering from at least two chronic illnesses of osteoarthritis, CVD, diabetes and COPD