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Table 4 Adjusted reporting odds ratio for the 9 movement disorders between different classes of antidepressants and between the different antidepressants

From: Antidepressants and movement disorders: a postmarketing study in the world pharmacovigilance database

Antidepressants aRORa (95% CI)
Akathisia Bruxism Dystonia Myoclonus Parkinsonism RLS TD Tics Tremor
Tricyclic antidepressants 0.40 [0.32–0.49] 0.13 [0.08–0.21] 0.88 [0.80–0.97] 0.87 [0.74–1.02] 0.77 [0.68–0.87] 0.36 [0.29–0.45] 0.80 [0.69–0.93] 0.48 [0.34–0.67] 0.76 [0.73–0.79]
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors 1.50 [1.34–1.68]* 1.56 [1.35–1.82]* 1.66 [1.55–1.78]* 1.25 [1.12–1.40]* 1.24 [1.14–1.35]* 0.82 [0.73–0.91]* 1.21 [1.08–1.34]* 1.20 [1.00–1.44]* 1.20 [1.16–1.23]*
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 0.51 [0.25–1.02] 0.34 [0.11–1.07] 0.96 [0.70–1.32] 2.54 [1.81–3.56] 1.12 [0.75–1.66] 0.27 [0.10–0.72] 0.79 [0.46–1.37] 0.19 [0.03–1.36] 0.77 [0.66–0.90]
“Other” antidepressants 0.98 [0.88–1.11] 1.14 [0.98–1.33] 0.59 [0.54–0.64] 0.78 [0.69–0.88] 0.92 [0.84–1.01] 1.89 [1.70–2.10] 0.94 [0.84–1.05] 1.17 [0.97–1.41] 0.97 [0.94–1.00]
Agomelatine 1.31 [0.49–3.50] 1.02 [0.26–4.11] 0.34 [0.11–1.05] 1.30 [0.49–3.47] 1.06 [0.44–2.57] 2.11 [1.00–4.44] 0.33 [0.05–2.34] 1.70 [0.42–6.84] 0.45 [0.29–0.69]
Amineptine 0.41 [0.10–1.62] 1.16 [0.29–4.64] 1.03 [0.33–3.22] 0.31 [0.15–0.61]
Amitriptyline 0.22 [0.14–0.34] 0.14 [0.07–0.29] 0.65 [0.56–0.76] 0.88 [0.71–1.09] 0.67 [0.56–0.80] 0.44 [0.33–0.58] 0.60 [0.47–0.76] 0.48 [0.29–0.81] 0.64 [0.60–0.69]
Amoxapine 3.22 [1.60–6.48] 4.43 [3.07–6.39]* 1.26 [0.41–3.93] 2.02 [1.04–3.92] 0.41 [0.06–2.90] 4.42 [2.50–7.84]* 0.65 [0.43–0.98]
Bifemelane 8.28 [1.06–64.44]
Bupropion 0.32 [0.23–0.46] 0.67 [0.48–0.92] 0.38 [0.32–0.46] 0.46 [0.34–0.63] 0.75 [0.61–0.93] 0.67 [0.52–0.86] 0.83 [0.66–1.05] 0.85 [0.60–1.20] 1.35 [1.28–1.42]*
Butriptyline
Citalopram 1.60 [1.39–1.84]* 1.48 [1.22–1.78]* 0.95 [0.85–1.05] 1.31 [1.13–1.52]* 1.21 [1.08–1.36] 0.98 [0.84–1.14] 1.07 [0.92–1.25] 1.00 [0.77–1.30] 0.92 [0.88–0.96]
Clomipramine 0.63 [0.36–1.08] 0.19 [0.05–0.77] 1.33 [1.05–1.69] 2.73 [2.01–3.71]* 1.33 [0.97–1.82] 0.24 [0.09–0.64] 0.72 [0.43–1.22] 0.79 [0.36–1.78] 1.42 [1.27–1.59]*
Desipramine    0.87 [0.52–1.44] 0.86 [0.32–2.29] 0.62 [0.26–1.50] 0.42 [0.10–1.68] 1.24 [0.59–2.60] 0.40 [0.06–2.83] 1.09 [0.86–1.37]
Desvenlafaxine 0.62 [0.30–1.31] 2.01 [1.18–3.41] 0.66 [0.43–1.02] 0.18 [0.05–0.72] 0.64 [0.35–1.20] 1.37 [0.86–2.18] 1.38 [0.86–2.23] 0.23 [0.03–1.66] 1.17 [1.01–1.35]
Dibenzepin 1.76 [0.96–3.23]
Dosulepin 0.47 [0.18–1.26] 0.40 [0.10–1.59] 1.18 [0.80–1.72] 0.32 [0.10–0.98] 0.61 [0.34–1.11] 0.31 [0.10–0.97] 0.88 [0.46–1.70]   0.75 [0.61–0.91]
Doxepin 0.47 [0.22–0.99] 0.12 [0.02–0.88] 0.79 [0.55–1.14] 0.37 [0.17–0.84] 0.82 [0.82–1.22] 0.49 [0.25–0.99] 1.11 [0.72–1.73] 0.61 [0.20–1.89] 0.68 [0.57–0.80]
Duloxetine 1.15 [0.92–1.43] 1.83 [1.46–2.31]* 0.58 [0.48–0.69] 0.74 [0.58–0.96] 0.84 [0.70–1.02] 1.88 [1.61–2.20]* 0.94 [0.76–1.18] 1.26 [0.89–1.80] 1.16 [1.10–1.23]*
Escitalopram 2.02 [1.69–2.42]* 1.62 [1.25–2.10]* 0.81 [0.69–0.95] 0.91 [0.71–1.17] 1.16 [0.97–1.38] 1.11 [0.89–1.38] 1.18 [0.96–1.47] 1.14 [0.79–1.64] 0.97 [0.91–1.04]
Etoperidone 6.88 [2.01–23.50]
Fluoxetine 1.02 [0.86–1.20] 0.66 [0.51–0.85] 1.51 [1.39–1.65]* 1.02 [0.85–1.22] 0.94 [0.81–1.09] 0.64 [0.52–0.79] 1.22 [1.04–1.43] 0.94 [0.72–1.24] 0.96 [0.92–1.01]
Fluvoxamine 1.61 [1.13–2.29] 1.28 [0.74–2.22] 1.48 [1.18–1.86]* 1.81 [1.25–2.64] 1.05 [0.73–1.52] 0.68 [0.38–1.23] 0.87 [0.52–1.44] 1.12 [0.58–2.17] 1.73 [1.56–1.92]*
Hypericum perforatum 0.26 [0.09–0.82] 0.72 [0.23–2.24] 0.70 [0.26–1.86] 0.71 [0.23–2.20] 0.25 [0.04–1.77] 0.36 [0.24–0.54]
Imipramine 0.58 [0.34–1.01] 0.08 [0.01–0.58] 1.17 [0.93–1.48] 0.77 [0.46–1.28] 0.65 [0.43–0.97] 0.50 [0.27–0.94] 1.11 [0.75–1.65] 0.76 [0.36–1.61] 0.95 [0.84–1.07]
Iprindole 2.01 [0.28–14.52]
Iproclozide
Iproniazide 4.92 [0.69–35.06] 4.61 [1.10–19.37] 0.69 [0.17–2.79]
Isocarboxazid 3.31 [0.46–23.59] 2.51 [0.35–18.01] 0.87 [0.32–2.34]
Lofepramine 0.63 [0.24–1.68]   0.61 [0.34–1.11] 0.31 [0.08–1.25] 0.72 [0.37–1.39]   0.70 [0.29–1.69]   0.70 [0.55–0.89]
Maprotiline 1.23 [0.61–2.46] 0.49 [0.25–0.93] 0.96 [0.43–2.14] 1.66 [1.05–2.61] 0.15 [0.02–1.08] 0.42 [0.14–1.32] 0.75 [0.59–0.95]
Medifoxamine 1.14 [0.28–4.65]
Melitracen 0.95 [0.13–6.80] 2.14 [0.95–4.79] 3.87 [2.00–7.50] 4.85 [2.17–10.87] 6.06 [1.51–24.42] 1.71 [1.19–2.45]
Mianserin 2.49 [1.66–3.74]* 0.64 [0.39–1.05] 1.52 [0.96–2.43] 0.75 [0.48–1.16] 0.95 [0.52–1.72] 0.30 [0.11–0.81] 0.49 [0.39–0.61]
Milnacipran 0.71 [0.23–2.22] 0.35 [0.05–2.50] 0.33 [0.13–0.89] 0.41 [0.10–1.63] 0.67 [0.28–1.60] 0.16 [0.02–1.12] 0.38 [0.10–1.52] 0.90 [0.70–1.15]
Minaprine 2.12 [0.29–15.30] 2.77 [0.38–20.05] 0.77 [0.19–3.14]
Mirtazapine 2.55 [2.06–3.14]* 0.42 [0.22–0.82] 0.94 [0.76–1.15] 1.61 [1.26–2.06]* 1.24 [1.02–1.50] 5.24 [4.51–6.10]* 1.11 [0.84–1.47] 0.50 [0.24–1.06] 0.71 [0.64–0.78]
Moclobemide 0.83 [0.35–2.00] 0.29 [0.04–2.04] 1.13 [0.71–1.80] 0.83 [0.34–1.99] 1.09 [0.60–1.97] 0.49 [0.16–1.54] 0.31 [0.08–1.23] 0.72 [0.56–0.93]
Nefazodone 0.88 [0.47–1.65] 0.73 [0.48–1.11] 0.28 [0.09–0.88] 1.09 [0.66–1.78] 0.37 [0.14–0.99] 0.36 [0.13–0.96] 0.49 [0.12–1.95] 0.64 [0.53–0.78]
Nialamide
Nomifensine 0.58 [0.22–1.56] 0.53 [0.34–0.83]
Nortriptyline 0.48 [0.24–0.97] 0.33 [0.11–1.01] 0.98 [0.72–1.33] 0.34 [0.15–0.77] 0.63 [0.41–0.98] 0.31 [0.14–0.68] 1.03 [0.67–1.59] 0.36 [0.09–1.44] 0.84 [0.73–0.96]
Opipramol 0.66 [0.21–2.04] 0.53 [0.07–3.73] 0.61 [0.15–2.43] 0.52 [0.07–3.67] 0.53 [0.07–3.74] 0.72 [0.72–1.13]
Oxaflozane
Oxitriptan 0.86 [0.12–6.16] 3.02 [0.42–21.71] 3.68 [0.91–14.97] 2.69 [0.38–19.19] 1.00 [0.41–2.43]
Paroxetine 1.49 [1.27–1.76]* 1.43 [1.15–1.78] 1.87 [1.70–2.05]* 1.43 [1.21–1.69]* 1.16 [1.01–1.34] 1.18 [0.99–1.41] 1.22 [1.02–1.45] 1.20 [0.90–1.59] 1.52 [1.45–1.58]*
Phenelzine 0.57 [0.18–1.76] 0.85 [0.48–1.50] 4.85 [3.14–7.49]* 1.28 [0.64–2.58] 0.37 [0.09–1.50] 0.83 [0.64–1.08]
Protriptyline 1.45 [0.54–3.90] 1.15 [0.16–8.20] 1.08 [0.15–7.71] 0.81 [0.45–1.47]
Quinupramine 26.74 [3.57–200.29] 1.94 [0.26–14.27]
Reboxetine 1.95 [0.87–4.36] 0.58 [0.08–4.09] 0.70 [0.31–1.55] 0.36 [0.05–2.52] 0.69 [0.22–2.14] 0.36 [0.05–2.57] 0.36 [0.05–2.53]   0.62 [0.42–0.92]
Sertraline 0.85 [0.71–1.02] 1.63 [1.35–1.98]* 1.02 [0.92–1.13] 0.74 [0.61–0.91] 1.23 [1.08–1.39] 0.80 [0.66–0.97] 1.03 [0.87–1.22] 1.33 [1.04–1.71] 1.08 [1.03–1.14]*
Tianeptine 0.35 [0.05–2.45] 0.28 [0.07–1.12] 1.58 [0.71–3.53] 0.75 [0.34–1.68] 0.26 [0.04–1.86] 0.51 [0.35–0.75]
Toloxatone 5.86 [0.82–42.07] 0.42 [0.06–3.04]
Tranylcypromine 1.11 [0.28–4.47] 1.06 [0.55–2.04] 2.11 [0.94–4.71] 0.87 [0.32–2.32] 0.31 [0.04–2.18] 2.20 [1.09–4.42] 0.94 [0.13–6.69] 0.83 [0.60–1.16]
Trazodone 1.08 [0.80–1.46] 0.44 [0.23–0.85] 1.01 [0.83–1.24] 0.48 [0.31–0.74] 1.03 [0.83–1.28] 1.01 [0.75–1.36] 1.31 [1.01–1.69] 0.58 [0.29–1.17] 0.73 [0.66–0.81]
Trimipramine 1.06 [0.44–2.55] 0.40 [0.06–2.81] 1.57 [1.00–2.47] 0.63 [0.20–1.95] 0.52 [0.22–1.25] 0.81 [0.30–2.15] 1.30 [0.62–2.74] 0.93 [0.72–1.20]
Tryptophan 0.10 [0.03–0.41] 0.08 [0.01–0.54] 0.07 [0.03–0.19] 0.05 [0.01–0.28] 0.05 [0.01–0.20] 0.04 [0.01–0.30] 0.09 [0.02–0.35] 8.13 [6.06–10.92]* 0.36 [0.30–0.43]
Venlafaxine 0.98 [0.80–1.19] 1.98 [1.63–2.42]* 1.02 [0.90–1.15] 1.31 [1.09–1.57] 1.22 [1.06–1.42] 1.25 [1.06–1.49] 1.35 [1.14–1.59]* 0.81 [0.57–1.16] 1.07 [1.02–1.13]
Vilazodone 0.75 [0.24–2.32] 2.04 [0.85–4.92] 0.18 [0.05–0.72] 1.48 [0.74–2.97] 3.87 [2.40–6.26]* 1.35 [0.61–3.02] 0.64 [0.09–4.54] 1.41 [1.13–1.76]
Viloxazine 4.66 [1.93–11.28] 1.57 [0.58–4.22] 0.43 [0.19–0.95]
Vortioxetine 2.17 [1.03–4.57] 4.71 [2.52–8.80]* 0.51 [0.21–1.23] 0.31 [0.04–2.15] 0.47 [0.12–1.87] 0.82 [0.26–2.55] 0.87 [0.28–2.71] 2.23 [0.72–6.95] 0.59 [0.41–0.85]
Zimeldine 0.47 [0.12–1.90] 1.22 [0.30–4.87] 0.47 [0.26–0.82]
  1. CI confidence interval, aROR adjusted reporting odd ratio; RLS, restless legs syndrome; TD, tardive dyskinesia
  2. aAdjusted ROR were calculated in adjusted univariate logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender, drugs described as able to induce movement disorders, and drugs used to treat movement disorders
  3. * Significant association was defined as adjusted ROR > 1 with α threshold of 0.001, and the number of cases being at least 10