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Table 2 Summary of Studies Assessing Neuropsychiatric Effects of Vitamin C Deficiency

From: The neuropsychiatric effects of vitamin C deficiency: a systematic review

Study Number of subjects Study definition of deficiency in μmol/L and blood component measured Measurement tool Outcome
[21] (Kinsman et al) 5 Low group, mean whole blood level: 25 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Increased scores in social inversion, ‘neurotic triad’ (hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria)
[24] (Pullar et al) 139 Inadequate, plasma: < 50 Profile of Mood States Increased total mood disturbance, depression, confusion
[25] (Marazzi et al) 129 Low, serum: <  23 Inventory of Psychic and Somatic Complaints-Elderly Higher depression score
[28] (Pearson et al) 404 Plasma: <  23 Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale,
Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview
Higher level of cognitive impairment, no association with depression or well-being
[27] (Gale et al) 921 Mild deficiency, plasma: 11.92 to 27.82
Moderate-to-severe deficiency, plasma: ≤ 11.91
Hodkinson Abbreviated Mental Test Statistically significant increased risk for cognitive impairment for moderate-to-severe, but not mild, deficiency
[29] (Travica et al) 80 Deficiency, plasma: <  28 Modified Mini Mental State Examination, Revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Symbol Digits Modalities Test, Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery Poorer outcome on numerous measures of cognitive function
[22] (Walker) 7 Clinical scurvy n/a Degree of confusion noted
[23] (Deligny et al) 4 Clinical scurvy n/a Intense asthenia in all patients
[26] (Mitra) 6 Clinical scurvy n/a Severe depressive state in all patients