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Table 2 Depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and PTSD and their distribution at both measurement times (N = 108)

From: The prevalence and risk factors for mental distress among Syrian refugees in Germany: a register-based follow-up study

  T1 T2 Comparison
n %f n %f zg p
Depressiona
 Clinically not relevant (<  10) 79 73.1 75 69.4 −0.282 0.778
 Moderate (10–14) 11 10.2 21 19.4
 Moderately severe or severe (≥ 15) 18 16.7 12 11.1
Generalized anxiety disorderb
 Clinically not relevant (<  10) 90 83.4 91 84.3 −0.136 0.892
 Moderate (10–14) 10 9.3 12 11.1
 Severe (≥ 15) 8 7.4 5 4.6
PTSDc, d
 Clinically not relevant 41 38.0 41 38.0 −0.346 0.730
 Clinically marginally relevant 22 20.4 23 21.3
 Clinically relevant 15 13.9 14 13.0
Number of mental disorderse
 Without mental disorder 74 68.5 68 63.0 −0.273 0.787d
 One mental disorder 15 13.9 22 20.4
 Two mental disorders 10 9.3 12 11.1
 Three mental disorders 9 8.3 6 5.6
Single diagnostic category
 Only depressiona 11 10.2 7 6.5   
 Only GADb 0 0.0 1 0.9
 Only PTSDc 3 2.8 4 3.7
Two diagnostic categories
 Depressiona and GADb 8 7.4 4 3.7   
 Depressiona and PTSDc 1 0.9 2 1.9
 GADb and PTSDc 1 0.9 0 0.0
Three diagnostic categories
 Depressiona, GADb and PTSDc 9 8.3 6 5.6   
  1. a PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire – Depression Module; b GAD-7, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; c ETI, Essen Trauma Inventory: sum score calculated on the basis of the three subscales (intrusion, hyperarousal and avoidance) that are relevant for the cut-off for a PTSD diagnosis; d PTSD was only calculated for those participants that had already experienced at least one traumatic event at T1 (n = 78); e Depression (PHQ-9 total score ≥ 10), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7 total score ≥ 10), PTSD (ETI: sum score calculated on the basis of the three subscales (intrusion, hyperarousal and avoidance) that are relevant for the cut-off for a PTSD diagnosis); f Add-ups may not be equal to total due to rounding; g Wilcoxon signed-rank test