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Table 1 Neuropsychological Tests Administered in the Study

From: Cognitive performance in children and adolescents at high-risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder

Name Definition
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) [44, 45] Estimates a total IQ score, which is further partitioned into verbal and performance IQ scores.
Verbal IQ:
 Vocabulary: the participant needs to define the meaning of certain words.
 Similarities: the participant must ascertain the similarities between two words.
Performance IQ:
 Block Design: requires the participant to assemble colored blocks into two-color figures.
 Matrix Reasoning: the participant has to complete a geometric pattern by selecting the best-fitting picture out of a set of pictures.
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) [46] A word-list with 15 items repeated 5 times. In each repetition, the subject needs to recall the maximum number of words. There is also an interference 15-word list and a delayed recall, after 30 min.
Trail-Making Test (TMT) – [47] This paradigm comprises five conditions:
1) visual scanning: visual cancellation task.
2) number sequencing: connect the dots, using a numerical sequence.
3) letter sequencing: connect the letters, in an alphabetical sequence.
4) number-letter switching: connect dots, using numbers and letters in a numerical and alphabetical sequence.
5) motor speed: connect filled circles based on a dotted trail.
Design Fluency Test (DFT) - [47] This test comprises three conditions, in each the participant needs to create as many designs as possible in a limited time:
1) Filled dots: connecting filled/black dots.
2) Empty dots: connecting empty/white dots.
3) Switching: connecting filled and empty dots.
Color and Word Interference Test (CWIT) - [47] This task comprises four conditions, which need to be completed as quickly as possible:
1) Condition 1: A set of colors is shown and the participant needs to name the colors.
2) Condition 2: A set of names of colors printed in black are shown and the participant needs to read the words.
3) Condition 3: A set of color names is printed in different colors (ex: “blue” printed in pink) and the participant needs to inhibit the tendency to read the words, and then voice the names of the colors in which the words are printed.
4) Condition 4: A set of colors names is printed outside and inside a rectangle and the participant needs to read the names of the colors when they are inside the rectangle and to voice the colors in which the words are printed when they are outside a rectangle.
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) [48] WCST is a classic executive functioning test in which the subject has to combine cards following a specific rule that he does not know (color, geometric form, or number) and for each trial, the subject receives feedback saying if the match is right or wrong.
Go/NoGo task [49] It consists of a computerized test, built on a homemade paradigm (E-Prime) The participant has to press the spacebar whenever a letter can be seen on the computer screen, as quickly as possible (condition “Go”). Alternatively, during the “NoGo” conditions, the participant was required to press different keyboard keys according to the colors of a letter presented on a computer screen. The condition “NoGo” is composed of specific letters in specific colors (‘O’ in blue or ‘E’ in pink). There are a total of 96 trials: 72 “Go” and 24 “NoGo”.
Grooved Pegboard Task
This test comprises two conditions, in each the participant has to use only one hand to fill twenty-five holes with pegs in a predetermined order, as quickly as possible.
Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) [51] It consists of a visuospatial task in which the subject needs to copy a complex and detailed geometrical figure, and recall it without seeing it again, after 3 and after 30 min.
Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CBTT) – Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R) [52] This test comprises forward and backward conditions. In the forward condition, the participant observes the examiner taping a set of blocks in a particular sequence, and then is required to tap the blocks in the exact same sequence. The backward condition follows a similar paradigm, with the exception that the participant is required to tap the blocks in the inverse sequence.
Digit Span Test (DST) – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Third Edition [53] It consists of a verbal paradigm which also comprises forward and backward conditions. In the DST, the participant is required to listen to a numeric sequence and repeat the sequence in the same and inverse orders during the forward and backward conditions, respectively.
Brixton Test - [54] It requires the participant to predict the position of a circle based on its previous positions.