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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of patients and healthy controls (adapted with participant numbers for the current analysis from [32])

From: Viewing an alpine environment positively affects emotional analytics in patients with somatoform, depressive and anxiety disorders as well as in healthy controls

Variable Groups Comparison
Patients (n = 183) Controls (n = 315) Test statistics D.f. p-value
Age in yearsa 36.0 ± 12.8 32.8 ± 11.7 Z = 2.42c   0.016
Female genderb 117 (63.9) 187 (58.4) χ2 = 1.02d 1 0.313
Educationb χ2 = 30.989d 3 < 0.001
 University 41 (22.4) 111 (35.2)  
 Secondary school 62 (33.9) 133 (42.2)  
 Vocational training 53 (29.0) 34 (10.8)  
 Compulsory school and other 27 (14.8) 37 (11.7)  
Marital statusb χ2 = 13.699d 2 0.001
 Single 105 (57.4) 194 (61.6)  
 Married 56 (30.6) 110 (34.9)  
 Separated/divorced/widowed 22 (12.0) 11 (3.5)  
Employmentb χ2 = 66.81d 2 < 0.001
 Full−/part-time employment 75 (41.0) 177 (56.2)    
 In education/study/vocational training 49 (26.8) 122 (38.7)    
 Unemployed 59 (32.2) 16 (5.1)    
  1. amean ± standard deviation
  2. babsolute number (percent)
  3. ctest statistic for Mann-Whitney U-test
  4. dtest statistics for Chi-Square test