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Table 2 Factors associated with severe depressive symptoms in the study population

From: Prevalence and factors associated with severe depressive symptoms in older west African people living with HIV

Variables   Univariable models Multivariable model
% severe depressive symptomsa OR (95% CI)* p-value aOR (95% CI)* p-value
Age    0.71   
 50–59 years old 17.4 1    
 ≥ 60 years old 18.9 1.1 (0.6–2.0)    
Gender    0.09   
 Men 22.7 1    
 Women 14.5 0.6 (0.4–1.1)    
Education level      
 No education 10.9 1    
 Primary school 21.8 2.2 (0.9–5.2) 0.08   
 Secondary school 21.9 2.1 (0.9–4.7) 0.07   
 University & Tertiary Education 13.5 1.1 (0.3–3.6) 0.87   
Marital Status      
 Married/Cohabitating 19.3 1    
 Widowed 13.1 0.7 (0.3–1.3) 0.23   
 Divorced 25.9 1.6 (0.6–4.2) 0.33   
 Never married 20.0 1.0 (0.4–2.3) 0.99   
Employment status    0.11   0.01
 Currently employed 14.5 1   1  
 Unemployed 23.9 1.9 (1.0–3.8) 0.04 2.8 (1.4–5.7) 0.003
 Retired 19.1 1.3 (0.6–2.8) 0.51 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 0.67
Duration of HIV infection
 [6–69[ 9.6 1    
 [69–108[ 16.7 1.9 (0.8–4.8) 0.17   
 [108–141[ 19.7 2.3 (0.9–5.8) 0.07   
  ≥ 141 24.4 3.2 (1.3–7.6) 0.01   
Clinical disease stage
 A 14.0 1    
 B 19.9 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 0.46   
 C 18.7 1.2 (0.5–3.2) 0.67   
Nadir CD4    < 0.0001   
  > 200 11.2 1    
  ≤ 200 22.0 2.1 (1.1–4.2)    
CD4    0.36   
  ≥ 500 15.9 1    
  < 500 20.1 1.3 (0.7–2.3)    
Viral load    0.002   
 Undetectable 15.1 1    
 Detectable 37.2 3.1 (1.5–6.3)    
Initial ART combination    0.10   
 3TC + TDF + EFV 12.2 1    
 Other 19.8 1.8 (0.9–3.8)    
Actual ART combination    0.06   
 3TC + TDF + EFV 14.2 1    
 Other 22.1 1.7 (0.9–3.1)    
Non adherence to ART
(ref.: adherent)
38.5 3.1 (0.9–9.9) 0.06   
Alcohol consumption
(ref.: no)b
28.0 1.9 (0.7–4.8) 0.18   
Tobacco (current/former) (ref.: no) 31.6 2.5 (1.3–4.9) 0.01 2.6 (1.3–5.4) 0.01
Drug consumption (ref.: no) 33.3 1.9 (0.3–11.0) 0.45   
BMI    0.01   0.01
Normal / underweight 22.7 1   1  
 Overweight/obesity 5.9 0.4 (0.2–0.8)   0.4 (0.2–0.8)  
Comorbidities
 No 16.2 1    
 Only one 17.8 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 0.62   
 More than one 21.6 1.7 (0.8–3.4) 0.18   
History of trauma (ref.: no) 18.2 0.9 (0.3–3.1) 0.99   
History of neurological disease (ref.: no) 22.9 2.3 (0.9–5.6) 0.07   
  1. Abbreviations: aOR adjusted Odd Ratio, ART antiretroviral therapy, BMI Body Mass Index, CI Confident Interval, EFV Efavirenz, OR odd ratio, ref. Reference group, TDF Tenofovir, 3TC Lamivudine
  2. *results considered as significant (p < 0.05) (bold text)
  3. aCalculated after imputation of missing data
  4. bref.: no: means that the OR is computed taking this category “absence of this medical problem” as the reference group