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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: A tool to evaluate proportionality and necessity in the use of restrictive practices in forensic mental health settings: the DRILL tool (Dundrum restriction, intrusion and liberty ladders)

Patient variable   n = 28
Mean age (years) (SD) 34.6 10.24
Gender   Male
Ethnicity 26:2  
 • Irish: non-Irish 26:2 93%, 7%
Legal Status
 • Court order 4 14.3%
 • Prison transfer 19 67.9%
 • Not guilty by reason of insanity 2 7.1%
 • Hospital transfer 3 10.7%
Diagnosis (ICD-10, SCID-I)
 • Schizophrenia 22 78.6%
 • Schizoaffective disorder 3 10.7%
 • Organic psychosis 1 3.6%
 • Personality disorder 2 7.1%
Secondary diagnosis
 • Co-morbidity with personality disorder 14 50%
 • Co-morbidity with substance misuse 25 89.3%
Index Offence
 • Homicide 4 14.3%
 • Assault 8 28.6%
 • Sexual Assault 0 0%
 • Arson 2 7.1%
 • Acquisitive Offences 4 14.3%
 • Drug offences 3 10.7%
 • Other 4 14.3%
 • Not charged 3 10.7%
  mean SD
Mean time at risk (days) (SD) 79.3 64.5
Mean HCR-20 score (SD) 23.4 5.7
Mean HCR-20 clinical items score (SD) 6.0 2.2
Mean DUNDRUM-1-9 item score 2.9 0.5
Mean DUNDRUM-1-11 item score 2.6 0.5
Mean forensic satisfaction survey (SD) 4 0.82
Mean EssenCES ward atmosphere score (SD) 10.5 4.92
Mean staffing ratio permanent: non permanent 5.6:2.4