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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: A tool to evaluate proportionality and necessity in the use of restrictive practices in forensic mental health settings: the DRILL tool (Dundrum restriction, intrusion and liberty ladders)

Patient variable

 

n = 28

Mean age (years) (SD)

34.6

10.24

Gender

 

Male

Ethnicity

26:2

 

 • Irish: non-Irish

26:2

93%, 7%

Legal Status

 • Court order

4

14.3%

 • Prison transfer

19

67.9%

 • Not guilty by reason of insanity

2

7.1%

 • Hospital transfer

3

10.7%

Diagnosis (ICD-10, SCID-I)

 • Schizophrenia

22

78.6%

 • Schizoaffective disorder

3

10.7%

 • Organic psychosis

1

3.6%

 • Personality disorder

2

7.1%

Secondary diagnosis

 • Co-morbidity with personality disorder

14

50%

 • Co-morbidity with substance misuse

25

89.3%

Index Offence

 • Homicide

4

14.3%

 • Assault

8

28.6%

 • Sexual Assault

0

0%

 • Arson

2

7.1%

 • Acquisitive Offences

4

14.3%

 • Drug offences

3

10.7%

 • Other

4

14.3%

 • Not charged

3

10.7%

 

mean

SD

Mean time at risk (days) (SD)

79.3

64.5

Mean HCR-20 score (SD)

23.4

5.7

Mean HCR-20 clinical items score (SD)

6.0

2.2

Mean DUNDRUM-1-9 item score

2.9

0.5

Mean DUNDRUM-1-11 item score

2.6

0.5

Mean forensic satisfaction survey (SD)

4

0.82

Mean EssenCES ward atmosphere score (SD)

10.5

4.92

Mean staffing ratio permanent: non permanent

5.6:2.4