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Table 4 DRILL Intervention Ladders: Contingency management interactions

From: A tool to evaluate proportionality and necessity in the use of restrictive practices in forensic mental health settings: the DRILL tool (Dundrum restriction, intrusion and liberty ladders)

DRILL Intervention Ladders: n = 2175 (%)  
De-escalation 188 (8.8)   
Restriction of privacy 401 (18.4)
Intrusion of bodily integrity (medication) 101 (4.6)
Physical restraint 85 (3.9)
Restriction on the use of space 380 (17.6)
Restriction of bodily space & intrusion of bodily integrity 146 (6.7)
Mechanical restraint 0 (0)
Situational coercion 2093 (96.2)
Total 3394  
Rating   De-escalation Observations / restriction of privacy Personal searches Extra medication Situational Coercion Manual restraint   Restraint (mech’l)
No intervention 0 1965 1770 2013 2058 0 2074 1779 2159
Anticipation 1 105 320 0 65 1994 66 79 0
Reaction 2 23 28 1 14 4 5 229 0
Intrusion 3 8 0 80 21 4 5 0 0
Restriction 4 51 37 65 1 44 9 14 0
Constraint 5 1 16 0 0 47 0 58 0
Missing data   22 4 16 16 82 16 16 16
Total   2175 2175 2175 2175 2175 2175 2175 2175