Skip to main content

Table 4 Comparisons between 195 T1DM patients with low and 83 T1DM patients with high levels of sTWEAK

From: Low levels of soluble TWEAK, indicating on-going inflammation, were associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

  sTWEAK
  Low levels (< 7.2 ng/ml) High levels (≥7.2 ng/ml) P - value a
N 195 83  
Age (years) 42 (32, 51) 42 (29, 51) 0.79
Diabetes duration (years) 20 (11, 30) 18 (9, 29) 0.58
Sex
 Women 89 (46) 30 (36) 0.15 b
 Men 106 (54) 53 (64)
Depression 27 (14) 2 (2) 0.003 b
High galectin-3 (≥2.6 ng/ml) c 27 (14) 14 (17) 0.58 b
High HbA1c (> 70 mmol/mol (> 8.6%)) 53 (27) 22 (26) > 0.99 b
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.6 (4.1, 5.2) 4.5 (4.0, 5.0) 0.13
LDL (mmol/l) 2.9 (2.4, 3.4) 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) 0.34
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.9 (0.7, 1.3) 0.8 (0.7, 1.2) 0.19
HDL (mmol/l) 1.5 (1.3, 1.8) 1.6 (1.3, 1.8) 0.71
Triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 0.6 (0.4–0.8) 0.23
S-Creatinine (μmol/l) d 70 (62, 77) 70 (62, 80) 0.44
Abdominal obesity e 33 (17) 11 (13) 0.48 b
BMI (kg/m2) f 24.6 (22.4, 27.9) 24.6 (23.1, 26.1) 0.92
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 120 (110, 130) 120 (110, 130) 0.34
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) 70 (70, 75) 70 (65, 78) 0.54
Hypoglycemia (severe episodes) 7 (4) 4 (5) 0.74 b
Smoking g 20 (11) 8 (10) > 0.99 b
Physical inactivity h 24 (13) 5 (6) 0.19 b
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion 11 (6) 14 (17) 0.005 b
Antidepressants 16 (8) 6 (7) > 0.99 b
Lipid lowering drugs 92 (47) 36 (43) 0.60 b
Antihypertensive drugs 62 (32) 26 (31) > 0.99 b
Cardiovascular complications 8 (4) 2 (2) 0.73 b
  1. N = 278. Data are presented as median (q1, q3) or N (%). a Mann-Whitney U test unless otherwise indicated
  2. b Fisher’s Exact Test. Missing values: c 4; d 12; e 6; f 2; g, h 16