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Table 1 Characteristics of Reviewed Studies

From: Stigma of mental illness and cultural factors in Pacific Rim region: a systematic review

Author, year Study type Target population (n) Country/District Cultural values Stigma type Measurements
Chiu et al., 2013 [17] Quantitative study Caregivers (211) China Face concern Affiliate stigma The Loss of Face Scale (LOS)
The Affiliate Stigma Scale (AAS)
Mirza et al., 2019 [12] Quantitative study Students (173) White British and South Asians Supernatural beliefs Public stigma The Beliefs About Mental Health Problems Questionnaire
The Supernatural Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ)
Mak et al., 2015 [18] Quantitative study Adults (199) China Face concern Self-stigma Loss of Face (LOF), 9-item Self- Stigma Scale
WonPat-Borja et al., 2012 [19] Quantitative study Chinese Americans (42) and European American (428) the USA Face concern and familism Public stigma Three items measuring eugenic attitudes and one item measuring the importance of genetics in mental health ‘three items that describe intimate social distance
Mak & Cheung, 2012 [20] Quantitative study Caregivers (108) China Face concern Affiliate stigma ASS, LOS
Chiu et al., 2015 [21] Quantitative study Caregivers (211) China Face concern Affiliate stigma ASS, LOS
Griffiths et al., 2006 [22] Quantitative study Adults (3998 from Australia and 2000 from Japan) Australia and Japan Individualism Self-stigma and Public stigma Perceived stigma scale; Personal stigma scale
Boge et al., 2018 [23] Quantitative study Adults (924) India Familism Public stigma Link’s Perceived Discrimination and Devaluation Scale (PDDS).
Picco et al., 2016 [24] Quantitative study Adults (280) Singapore Cultural values and beliefs affect stigmatization Self-stigma Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness; Rosenberg’s Self Esteem Scale; Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS)
Ran et al., 2018 [2] Quantitative study Adults (153) China Cultural values and beliefs affect stigmatization Self-stigma Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness;
Mileva, Vázquez & Milev, 2013 [25] Quantitative study Persons with bipolar disorder (178 from Argentina and 214 from Canada) Argentina and Canada Cultural values and beliefs affect stigmatization Public stigma Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences (ISE)
Marquez & Ramírez, 2013 [26] Quantitative study Caregivers (32) Mexican caregivers in the USA Familismo Affiliate stigma Five items scale developed by Greenberg, Greenley, McKee, Brown, and Griffin-Francell (1993)
Lin et al., 2018 [27] Quantitative study Mental health professionals (665) China and the USA Confucianism and face concern Professional stigma The Clinician Associative Stigma Scale (CASS)
Pang et al., 2017 [28] Quantitative study Youths (940) Singapore Collectivism and face concern Public stigma The Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness; Social Tolerance Scale
Haraguchi et al., 2009 [29] Quantitative study Rehabilitation workers (292 from Japan and 270 from China). China and Japan Cultural values and beliefs affect stigmatization Public stigma The Social Distance Scale
Caplan et al., 2011 [30] Quantitative study Adults (177) Latino immigrant in the USA Religion and supernatural beliefs Public stigma Beliefs about Causes of Depression scale;
Perceived stigma contained three items
Kurumatani et al., 2004 [31] Quantitative study Elementary school teachers (150 from Taiwan and 129 from Japan) Taiwan and Japan Cultural values and beliefs affect stigmatization Public stigma Angermeyer and
Matschinge questionnaire
Papadopoulos, Foster & Caldwell, 2013 [32] Quantitative study 4 culture groups (78 Americans, 75 White-English, 77 Greek, 75 Chinese) White-English, American, Greek, Chinese Individualism and Collectivism Public stigma Community Attitudes to Mental Illness Scale;
the ‘vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale
Loya, Reddy, & Hinshaw, 2010 [33] Quantitative study Students (74 Caucasians and 54 South Asians) South Asian and Caucasian in the USA Collectivism Public stigma;
Self-stigma
Social Distance Scale;
Devaluation-discrimination Scale
Tsang et al., 2007 [34] Qualitative study Employees (40
from Chicago, 30 from Hong Kong, and 30 from Beijing)
China and the USA Confucianism and religions Public stigma N/A
Tanaka et al., 2018 [35] Qualitative study People with mental illness (39) Philippines Religion and supernatural beliefs Self-stigma N/A
Fancher et al., 2010 [36] Qualitative study Adults (11) Vietnamese
American in the USA
Supernatural beliefs and familism Self-stigma N/A
Luo et al., 2018 [37] Qualitative study Medical school
graduates (20)
China Face concern Professional stigma N/A
Chen et al., 2013 [38] Qualitative study Persons with mental illness (53) Chinese immigrant in the USA Face concern and familism Self-stigma N/A
Han et al., 2017 [39] Qualitative study Participants aged from 18 to 49 (18) Korean Immigrants in the USA Collectivism and face concern Public stigma N/A
Ramli et al., 2017 [40] Qualitative study Caregivers (14) Malaysia Religion and familism Affiliate stigma N/A
Mascayano et al., 2015 [41] Qualitative study Persons with mental illness (20) Chile Familism Self-stigma N/A
Alvidrez et al., 2008 [42] Qualitative study Mental health consumers (34) the USA Familism Public stigma
Self-stigma
N/A
Interian et al., 2007 [43] Qualitative study Outpatient (30) Latin America Collectivism and familism Public stigma N/A
Caplan, 2019 [44] Qualitative study Persons with mental illness (177) Latinos in the USA Supernatural beliefs Public stigma N/A
Bui et al., 2018 [45] Qualitative study Caregivers (21) Vietnamese in the USA Familism and religion Affiliate stigma N/A
Yang et al., 2013 [46] Qualitative study Individuals with
psychosis (20), their relatives (15), and community respondents
(15).
Chile Familism and religion Public stigma;
Self-stigma
Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination (PDD) Scale and Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI)
Keller et al., 2019 [47] Qualitative study Students (33) the USA Collectivism and individualism Public stigma;
Self-stigma
N/A
Yang, 2015 [48] Mixed-method Caregivers (120) China Face concern and familism Affiliate stigma ASS, LOS
Yang et al., 2014 [49] Mixed-method Caregivers (11) Chinese Immigrants in the USA Familism Affiliate stigma Internalized stigma scale
Lee et al., 2005 [50] Mixed-method Out-patients (480) Hong Kong Face concern Public stigma Psychiatric Stigma Experience Questionnaire (PSEQ)
Mascayano et al., 2016 [51] Theory study(review) Latin Americans Latin America Familism, and religion Public stigma, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, and multiple stigmas N/A
Yang & Kleinman, 2008 [52] Theory study Chinese China Face concern N/A N/A
Yang et al., 2007 [53] Theory study Chinese China Face concern N/A N/A
Hanzawa, 2012 [54] Theory study Japanese Japan Confucianism and familism Affiliate stigma N/A
Abdullah & Brown, 2011 [11] Theory study(review) Americans (different ethnicities) the USA   N/A N/A