Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), patients with bipolar I disorders (BD), and healthy control subjects

From: Defining cognitive and functional profiles in schizophrenia and affective disorders

 Schizophrenia (n = 63)MDD (n = 55)BD (n = 43)Controls (n = 92)Statistic valuep-value
Gender, n (%)    χ2 = 7.3980.060
 Male36 (57.1)18 (32.7)22 (51.2)44 (47.8)  
 Female27 (42.9)37 (67.3)21 (48.8)48 (52.2)  
Age (years)41.6 ± 8.946.3 ± 12.444.6 ± 12.344.7 ± 10.3F = 1.9880.116
Years of education12.8 ± 2.813.0 ± 3.012.4 ± 2.714.6 ± 2.6F = 9.347< 0.001***
Age of onset (years)25.5 ± 7.837.4 ± 12.332.9 ± 12.3F = 18.368< 0.001***
Duration of illness (years)16.1 ± 9.18.9 ± 7.911.7 ± 7.7F = 11.197< 0.001***
Pharmacotherapy
 Antidepressant use, n (%)5 (7.9)41 (74.5)11 (25.6)χ2 = 59.443< 0.001***
 Antipsychotics use, n (%)63 (100)18 (32.7)29 (67.4)χ2 = 61.424< 0.001***
  Defined daily dose1.0 ± 0.90.3 ± 0.30.7 ± 0.5 F = 6.6960.002**
  Olanzapine or clozapine27 (42.9)0 (0)3 (10.3) χ2 = 18.654< 0.001***
  Other antipsychotics36 (57.1)18 (100)26 (89.7)   
 Benzodiazepine use, n (%)39 (61.9)46 (83.6)31 (72.1)χ2 = 6.8860.032*
 Mood stabilizers use, n (%)8 (12.7)1 (1.8)29 (67.4)χ2 = 64.460< 0.001***
Psychopathology assessments
 PANSS total scores75.2 ± 19.0
  Positive symptoms17.1 ± 5.0  
  Negative symptoms19.2 ± 7.1  
  General symptoms38.9 ± 9.4  
 YMRS total scores3.4 ± 4.0
 HAMD-17 items total scores5.9 ± 5.27.5 ± 4.53.7 ± 3.1F = 8.637< 0.001***
  1. Note: data are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%). HAM-D the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, PANSS the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, YMRS the Young Mania Rating Scale. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001