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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), patients with bipolar I disorders (BD), and healthy control subjects

From: Defining cognitive and functional profiles in schizophrenia and affective disorders

  Schizophrenia (n = 63) MDD (n = 55) BD (n = 43) Controls (n = 92) Statistic value p-value
Gender, n (%)      χ2 = 7.398 0.060
 Male 36 (57.1) 18 (32.7) 22 (51.2) 44 (47.8)   
 Female 27 (42.9) 37 (67.3) 21 (48.8) 48 (52.2)   
Age (years) 41.6 ± 8.9 46.3 ± 12.4 44.6 ± 12.3 44.7 ± 10.3 F = 1.988 0.116
Years of education 12.8 ± 2.8 13.0 ± 3.0 12.4 ± 2.7 14.6 ± 2.6 F = 9.347 < 0.001***
Age of onset (years) 25.5 ± 7.8 37.4 ± 12.3 32.9 ± 12.3 F = 18.368 < 0.001***
Duration of illness (years) 16.1 ± 9.1 8.9 ± 7.9 11.7 ± 7.7 F = 11.197 < 0.001***
Pharmacotherapy
 Antidepressant use, n (%) 5 (7.9) 41 (74.5) 11 (25.6) χ2 = 59.443 < 0.001***
 Antipsychotics use, n (%) 63 (100) 18 (32.7) 29 (67.4) χ2 = 61.424 < 0.001***
  Defined daily dose 1.0 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.5   F = 6.696 0.002**
  Olanzapine or clozapine 27 (42.9) 0 (0) 3 (10.3)   χ2 = 18.654 < 0.001***
  Other antipsychotics 36 (57.1) 18 (100) 26 (89.7)    
 Benzodiazepine use, n (%) 39 (61.9) 46 (83.6) 31 (72.1) χ2 = 6.886 0.032*
 Mood stabilizers use, n (%) 8 (12.7) 1 (1.8) 29 (67.4) χ2 = 64.460 < 0.001***
Psychopathology assessments
 PANSS total scores 75.2 ± 19.0
  Positive symptoms 17.1 ± 5.0   
  Negative symptoms 19.2 ± 7.1   
  General symptoms 38.9 ± 9.4   
 YMRS total scores 3.4 ± 4.0
 HAMD-17 items total scores 5.9 ± 5.2 7.5 ± 4.5 3.7 ± 3.1 F = 8.637 < 0.001***
  1. Note: data are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%). HAM-D the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, PANSS the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, YMRS the Young Mania Rating Scale. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001