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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical variables of patients with psychosis and healthy controls

From: Theory of mind, emotion recognition, delusions and the quality of the therapeutic relationship in patients with psychosis – a secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled therapy trial

 n(patients/ Controls)Patients with psychosis (n = 185)Healthy controls (n = 48)Test statistics
n (%) / M (SD)n (%)/ M (SD)
Age (ys.)185/4838.62 (9.78)35.69 (9.44)t(231) = 1.865, p = .063
Gender (fem.)185/48107 (57.84%)20 (41.68%)ap = 1.000
School education:185/48  X2(4)=8.331, p = .080
 13 years 97 (52.43%)24 (50%) 
 10 years 56 (30.27%)22 (45.83%) 
 9 years 31 (16.76%)2 (4.17%) 
 Less than 9 years 1 (0.54%) 
Verbal intelligence (MWT-B) b176 / 46 b107.48 (14.82)114.52 ((15.36)t(222) = −2.85, p = .005
Duration of illness18515.36 (9.63)  
Theory of Mind (ToM) c185/39 c12.56 (1.74)13.31 (1.00)t(222) = −2.711, p = .007
ER total score185/45d23.31 (3.23)24.8 (2.06)t(228) = −2.954, p = .003
ER fear185/45d5.90 (1.43)6.22 (0.90)t(228) = − 1.456, p = .147
ER anger185/45d6.05 (1.19)6.69 (0.56)t(228) = −3.512, p = .001
ER sadness185/45d6.28 (1.15)6.33 (1.09)t(228) = −.275, p = .783
ER disgust185/45d5.09 (1.28)5.56 (1.16)t(228) = −2.247, p = .026
PANSS positive scale18517.71 (3.79)  
PANSS negative scale18513.57 (4.17)  
PANSS general psychopathology scale18532.62 (7.27)  
PANSS P1 delusions in general1854.44 (1.02)  
PANSS P6 delusions of persecution1853.37 (1.57)  
PSYRATS delusional frequency1858.76 (3.56)  
PSYRATS delusional distress1855.1 (2.46)  
TSQ therapy alliance (therapist)174 d1.09 (.65  
TSQ interactional difficulties (therapist)174 d−.50 (1.23)  
PSQ therapy alliance (patient)sessions 1–5174 d1.72 (.62)  
  1. Notes: a Fishers Exact Test; bn = 9 patients did not perform in the MWT-B due to language problems and two controls due to organisational problems, cn = 9 controls did not participate at the ToM assessment, dn = 3 controls did not participate at the ER assessment; ER: Emotion recognition; PANSS: Positive and Negative Syndrom Scale; PSYRATS: Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale; TSQ therapy alliance = Therapist session questionnaire = quality of therapeutic relationship viewed by the therapist (mean score sessions1–5); TSQ interactional difficulties = Therapist Session Questionnaire rating of interactional difficulties rated by the therapist (mean score sessions 1–5), PSQ therapy alliance = Patient Session Questionnaire rating of the quality of the therapeutic relationship rated by the patient (mean score sessions 1–5); d TSQs were filled by 13 different therapists and 174 patients