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Table 4 Test of proportionality of hazards using Schoenfeld residuals

From: Exploring factors of diagnostic delay for patients with bipolar disorder: a population-based cohort study

Factorsrhoχ2Sig.
Age categories18–27Reference
28–370.0100.7800.377
38–470.0040.1200.729
48–570.0141.7600.185
58–650.0339.4300.002 *
GenderFemaleReference
Male0.0121.2500.263
First mental health visitInpatientReference
Outpatient0.05322.8200.000 ***
First diagnosis with bipolar disorderInpatientReference
Outpatient0.0121.1000.294
Prior F31 diagnosis, assigned mostly as additional diagnosis (proportion of patients)0.06224.8200.000 ***
Time between prior F31 diagnosis (mostly additional diagnosis) and first F31 diagnosis as defined in this study (years)0.09261.3800.000 ***
Patient was hospitalized with mental problemsNoReference
Yes0.0090.7100.399
Mania at first presentationNoReference
Yes0.0121.2200.270
Inpatient carealcohol misuse/dependence0.04214.2200.000 **
illicit drug misuse/dependence0.0100.7100.400
schizophrenia and related disorders0.04514.9600.000 **
anxiety disorder0.0234.2700.039 *
specific, mixed and other personality disorders other than borderline personality disorder, and enduring personality changes0.0328.0500.005 *
borderline personality disorder0.0141.5000.220
psychotic depression0.0223.8200.051 †
unipolar depression without psychotic symptoms0.03610.1600.001 *
mood affective disorders other than the ones listed above0.0111.0200.314
organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders0.0010.0100.912
neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders0.0060.2500.615
behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors0.0223.8400.050 †
disorders of adult personality and behavior other than the ones listed above0.0030.0500.831
mental and behavioural disorders other than the ones listed above0.0307.4300.006 *
poisoning and toxic substances0.0080.5100.475
intentional self-harm0.0040.1100.746
Outpatient carealcohol misuse/dependence0.0359.6000.002 *
illicit drug misuse/dependence0.0265.3000.021 *
schizophrenia and related disorders0.10987.8900.000 ***
anxiety disorder0.118109.1400.000 ***
specific, mixed and other personality disorders other than borderline personality disorder, and enduring personality changes0.0203.4200.065 †
borderline personality disorder0.0359.6100.002 *
psychotic depression0.0172.1800.140
unipolar depression without psychotic symptoms0.114106.5900.000 ***
mood affective disorders other than the ones listed above0.05625.4300.000 ***
organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders0.0172.4000.122
neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders0.0141.5800.208
behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors0.0244.5700.033 *
disorders of adult personality and behavior other than the ones listed above0.0182.8300.092 †
mental and behavioural disorders other than the ones listed above0.09783.4400.000 ***
intentional self-harm0.0100.8400.359
  1. p < 0.1; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001; *** p < 0.0001