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Table 1 Characteristics of the final sample

From: The effect of depressive symptomatology on the association of vitamin D and sleep

Variable Total sample Men Women
N (%) 1252 (100%) 605 (48.3%) 647 (51.7%)
Age (years), means (SD) 57.09 (12.28) 58.39 (12.19) 55.89 (12.25)
Birth, n (%)
 In Germany 1196 (95.5%) 574 (94.9%) 622 (96.1%)
 In another country 56 (4.5%) 31 (5.1%) 25 (3.9%)
Family status, n (%)
 Married, living together 787 (62.9%) 419 (69.3%) 368 (56.9%)
 Married, not living together 28 (2.2%) 9 (1.5%) 19 (2.9%)
 Single 209 (16.7%) 93 (15.4%) 116 (17.9%)
 Divorced 163 (13.0%) 68 (11.2%) 95 (14.7%)
 Widowed 65 (5.2%) 16 (2.6%) 49 (7.6%)
Socio-economic status, n (%)a
 High 339 (27.1%) 180 (29.8%) 159 (24.6%)
 Middle 740 (59.1%) 341 (56.4%) 399 (61.7%)
 Low 171 (13.7%) 83 (13.7%) 88 (13.6%)
Employment status, n (%)
 Gainful employment 708 (56.6%) 328 (54.2%) 380 (58.7%)
 Unemployment 99 (7.9%) 48 (7.9%) 51 (7.9%)
 Retirement 445 (35.5%) 229 (37.9%) 216 (33.4%)
BMI, means (SD) 27.20 (4.49) 27.70 (3.89) 26.73 (4.94)
Consumption of alcohol (g/day),
means (SD)b 12.88 (17.81) 19.47 (21.34) 6.70 (10.44)
Vitamin D supplement, n (%) 225 (18.0%) 76 (12.6%) 149 (23.0%)
Season in which vitamin D concen-trations had been measured, n(%)
 Winter 298 (23.8%) 160 (26.4%) 138 (21.3%)
 Spring 304 (24.3%) 146 (24.1%) 158 (24.4%)
 Summer 329 (26.3%) 157 (26.0%) 172 (26.6%)
 Autumn 321 (25.6%) 142 (23.5%) 179 (27.7%)
Lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorders, n (%) 132 (10.5%) 41 (6.8%) 91 (14.1%)
Lifetime diagnosis of diseases of the thyroid gland, n(%) 322 (25.7%) 83 (13.7%) 239 (36.9%)
Depression status according to the CES-D sum score, n (%)
 Clinically inconspicuous symptomatology (score: 0–14) 1041 (83.1%) 525 (86.8%) 516 (79.8%)
 Mild to moderate depressive symptomatology, clinically relevant (score: 15–21) 139 (11.1%) 55 (9.1%) 84 (13.0%)
 Severe depressive symptomatology, possibly associated with Major Depression (score: ≥22) 72 (5.8%) 25 (4.1%) 47 (7.3%)
Serum 25(OH) D concentration (ng/ml), means (SD) 23.44 (11.15) 23.56 (11.00) 23.32 (11.29)
Night sleep duration (hh:mm), means (SD) 6:16 (0:59) 6:03 (0:59) 6:28 (0:56)
Mid sleep time (hh:mm), means (SD) 03:10 (0:50) 03:14 (0:51) 03:07 (0:49)
  1. Notes: CES-D: German version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, [35, 36]); ml milliliter, N/n sample size, ng nanogram, SD standard deviation
  2. aReduced N due to 2 missings (total sample: 1250, males: 604, females: 646),
  3. bReduced N due to 1 missing (total sample: 1251, males: 605, females: 646)