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Table 2 Marginal differences of hospital and county-level characteristics on telepsychiatry adoption

From: Telepsychiatry adoption across hospitals in the United States: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Average
Marginal Differences
95% CI P
HOSPITAL CHARACTERISTICS
Hospital Location
 Urban Ref    
 Rural Micropolitan 0.1% −4.0% 4.3% 0.95
 Rural Noncore 0.7% −4.6% 6.0% 0.79
Provision of Psychiatric Services  
 None of Inpatient and Outpatient Psychiatric Services Ref    
 Inpatient Psychiatric Services Only 1.1% −5.1% 7.2% 0.73
 Outpatient Psychiatric Services Only 6.5% 3.7% 9.4% <  0.001
 Both Inpatient and Outpatient Psychiatric Services 16.0% 12.1% 19.9% <  0.001
Ownership  
 Non-federal Public Ref    
 Private For-Profit −1.4% −5.2% 2.4% 0.46
 Private Non-Profit −6.9% −11.7% −2.0% <  0.01
 Federal Hospitals 48.9% 32.5% 65.3% <  0.001
System Affiliation  
 No Ref    
 Yes 3.9% 1.2% 6.6% <  0.01
Hospital Beds Staffed  
 1–25 Ref    
 26–100 2.4% −1.7% 6.4% 0.25
 101–225 2.1% −2.7% 6.9% 0.39
  > 225 6.2% 0.7% 11.6% 0.03
Ratios of Medicaid Inpatient Days to Total Inpatient Days  
  ≤ 7.76% Ref    
 7.76 -16.67% 1.6% −2.1% 5.2% 0.40
 16.67 -23.61% 3.1% −1.4% 7.6% 0.18
  > 23.61% 4.9% 0.3% 9.4% 0.04
Profit Margins  
 Negative Margins Ref    
 Positive Margins 1.0% −1.8% 3.8% 0.49
 Missing 4.4% −0.2% 9.0% 0.06
COUNTY LEVEL CHARACTERISTICS  
County-level Population by Age Groups, Years a
  < 15 Ref    
  15–24 2.7% −3.9% 9.4% 0.42
 25–44 7.2% 0.4% 14.0% 0.04
 45–64 1.3% −8.2% 10.8% 0.79
 65–74 4.1% −13.4% 21.7% 0.65
  > 75 1.1% − 12.8% 15.0% 0.88
County-level Population by Race/Ethnicity % b  
 Non-Hispanic White Ref    
 Non-Hispanic Black −1.4% −4.5% 1.8% 0.39
 American Indian and Alaska Native −0.7% −4.4% 3.1% 0.73
 Hispanic −1.0% −2.1% 0.1% 0.08
 Other −0.4% −2.5% 1.7% 0.72
County-level Population Uninsured, %  
  ≤ 7.4% Ref    
 7.4–10.6% 1.6% −1.4% 4.6% 0.29
 10.6–14.5% 3.5% −0.7% 7.6% 0.10
  > 14.5% 2.0% −3.9% 7.9% 0.51
Designation as a Mental Health Professional Shortage Area  
 No Ref    
 Part −5.2% −11.1% 0.7% 0.08
 Whole −6.6% −12.7% −0.5% 0.03
County-level Total Number of Psychiatrists  
 None Ref    
 1–4 −2.6% −7.2% 1.9% 0.26
  > 4 −2.7% −7.6% 2.2% 0.28
Census Region     
 Northeast Ref    
 South −1.9% −6.8% 2.9% 0.44
 Midwest −1.0% −5.1% 3.2% 0.65
 West −1.5% −6.6% 3.7% 0.59
  1. Notes: Marginal differences were calculated using generalized logistic regression models that included all covariates and 95% CIs were calculated from standard errors clustered at the county level. a, b: the percent of population by age groups and race/ethnicity were multiplied by 10 for ease of interpretation