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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of subjects and Summary of articles included in ALE meta-analysis of TS

From: Grey matter abnormalities in Tourette syndrome: an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis

First Author Year YGTSS (\( \overline{x} \) ±s) N Age(\( \overline{x} \) ±s) Males (%) DOI TS, HC Coordinates Measure Main Findings
Greene 2017 18.1 ± 8.3 103 11.9 ± 2.1 78.64 N/A 103, 103 MNI GMV The TS group demonstrated lower WM volumes bilaterally in orbital and medial prefrontal cortices, and greater GM volumes in the posterior thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain. In a multiple regression analysis for the relative volume in each significant cluster, we modeled YGTSS and age as factors and their interaction. The YGTSS effect and the YGTSS × age interaction was not significant in any of the models, suggesting our results reflected diagnosis rather than cross-sectional tic severity.
Muellner 2015 17.64 ± 7.05 52 29.5 ± 8.51 55.77 N/A 52, 52 MNI N/A Lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter was found in the pre- and post-central gyri, as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. A negative correlation of YGTSS/50 score with sulcal depth of the superior temporal sulcus and central sulcus on the right.
Draper 2015 N/A 35 14 ± 3.1 91.43 N/A 35, 29 MNI GMT PSP was inversely associated with grey matter thickness within insular and sensorimotor cortices. Grey matter thickness was significantly reduced in these areas in individuals with TS. PSP ratings were significantly correlated with tic severity. Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale scores that were negatively correlated with grey matter thickness were identified in clusters located within sensorimotor cortical areas and within the left insular cortex. By contrast, there were no significant clusters of positive correlations between PUTS scores and cortical grey matter thickness.
Liu 2013 41.71 ± 12.46 21 7.9 ± 1.95 95.24 1.84 ± 0.56 21, 20 MNI GMV Brain volume changes were found in the left superior temporal gyrus, bilateral paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post-central gyrus, left temporal-occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus in TS patients. Increases were found in the anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus, and the forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV) were found in the right frontal pole. No correlations between gray matter volume change and YGTSS scores or tic duration were found.
Draganski 2010 28.7 ± 7.4 40 32.4 ± 11 75 24 ± 11.6 40,40 MNI GMV& GMT Reductions in grey matter volume were found in orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices bilaterally. Cortical thinning extended into the limbic mesial temporal lobe. The VBM analysis failed to demonstrate any significant correlation between grey matter volume and overall tic severity (YGTSS).
Müller-Vahl 2009 28.8 19 30.4 100 N/A 19, 20 MNI GMV Decreases in gray matter volumes were found in prefrontal areas, the anterior cingulate gyrus, sensorimotor areas, left caudate nucleus, and left postcentral gyrus. Decreases in white matter volumes were detected in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, and the anterior corpus callosum. Increases were found in the left middle frontal gyrus and left sensorimotor areas. In MTI, white matter reductions were seen in the right medial frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, as well as in the right cingulate gyrus. The YGTSS score was negatively correlated with GMV.
  1. Abbreviations: YGTSS, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; DOI, Duration Of Illness; HC, Health Control; MNI, Montreal Neurological Institute; GMV, Grey Matter Volume; WMV, White Matter Volume; GMT, Grey Matter Thickness; PSP, Premonitory Sensory Phenomena