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Table 1 Percentage distribution of background characteristics among older adults in India (N = 9181)

From: Socioeconomic inequality in psychological distress among older adults in India: a decomposition analysis

Variables N Percentage
Psychological distress
 Low 7027 76.5
 High 2154 23.5
Age (years)
 60–69 5815 63.3
 70–79 2437 26.5
 80+ 929 10.1
Gender
 Men 4353 47.4
 Women 4828 52.6
Religion
 Hindu 7389 80.5
 Muslim 617 6.7
 Sikh 771 8.4
 Others 404 4.4
Caste
 Scheduled Caste 1802 19.6
 Scheduled Tribe 470 5.1
 Other Backward Class 3190 34.8
 Others 3719 40.5
Place of residence
 Rural 4784 52.1
 Urban 4397 47.9
Educational status
 No education 4186 45.6
 Below 5 years 1886 20.5
 6–10 years 2310 25.2
 11+ years 799 8.7
Marital status
 Not in union 3724 40.6
 Currently in union 5457 59.4
Wealth
 Poorest 1758 19.2
 Poorer 1838 20.0
 Middle 1823 19.9
 Richer 1844 20.1
 Richest 1918 20.9
Source of income
 0 “No source” 3940 42.9
 1 4318 47.0
 2+ 923 10.1
Working status
 No 7076 77.1
 Yes 2105 22.9
Community involvement
 No 1753 19.1
 Yes 7428 80.9
Living arrangement
 Alone 556 6.1
 With spouse 1339 14.6
 Others 7286 79.4
How important do you feel you are important to your family?
 Important 5987 65.2
 Somewhat or not important 3194 34.8
Violence
 No 8280 90.2
 Yes 901 9.8
Multi-morbidity
 0 “No morbidity” 3260 35.5
 1 2936 32.0
 2+ 2985 32.5
Disability
 0 “No disability” 2485 27.1
 1 2816 30.7
 2+ 3880 42.3
ADL
 High “6+ score” 8521 92.8
 Low “5 or less score” 660 7.2
IADL
 High “6+ score” 4276 46.6
 Low “5 or less score” 4905 53.4
Cognitive ability
 High “scores 5+” 3888 42.4
 Low “scores of 4 or less” 5293 57.7
State
 Kerala 1338 14.6
 Himachal Pradesh 1452 15.8
 Punjab 1249 13.6
 West Bengal 1112 12.1
 Orissa 1448 15.8
 Maharashtra 1251 13.6
 Tamil Nadu 1331 14.5
Total 9181 100.0
  1. N: Sample