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Table 2 Method of analyses, loading and structure of factors for included studies (n = 13)

From: A systematic review of the latent structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) amongst adolescents

Author Method Cronbach’s alpha Number of factors FACTORS
Depressed affect Positive affect Somatic Interpersonal Did not load
Original paper:
Radloff (1977) [8]
PCFA   4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15,19
Barkmann et al. (2008) [11] CFA 0.67 4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15,19
Li et al. (2010) [18] CFA Test: 0.82
Retest: 0.85
4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15,19
Motl et al. (2005) [19] CFA NR 4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15,19
Phillips et al. (2006) [20] CFA NR 4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15,19
Roberts et al. (1990) [21] CFA Male: 0.88
Females: 0.91
4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15, 19
Cheng et al. (2012) [12] CFA NR 4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15,19
Crockett et al. (2005) [13] CFA, EFA NR 4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,11,13,20 15,19
Skriner et al. (2014) [22] CFA 0.83 4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,11,13,20 15,19 7
Tatar et al. (2013) [23] CFA, EFA 0.74 4 3,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,11,13,20 15,19 7
Faulstich et al. (2016) [15] PCFA Age < 13: 0.77
Age 13+: 0.86
3 1,6,9,10,14,17,18 4,8,12,16 2,5,7,11,15,19,20 3, 13
Ghazali et al. (2016) [16] EFA 0.85 3 9, 10,13,14,15,17,18,19,20 4,8,12,16 1,2,3,5,6,7,11
Heo et al. (2018) [17] EFA, CFA 0.88 3 3,6,10,11,13,14,15,17,18,19 4,8,12,16 1,2,5,7,9,20
Dardas et al. (2019) [14] EFA, CFA 0.88 2 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20 4,8,12,16 7, 13
  1. NR not reported in study, PCFA principal component factor analysis, CFA confirmatory factor analysis, EFA exploratory factor analysis