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Table 1 Demographic characteristics by anxiety score (GAD-7 ≥ 8) and children emotional SDQ score (SDQ ≥ 5) (N = 1469)

From: The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults and children in the United Arab Emirates: a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Demographics Anxiety GAD-7 Score (≥8) Reported Children Emotional SDQ Score (SDQ ≥ 5)
Variable Category Frequency (n) % %(n) Chi- square χ2 p-value %(n) Chi-square χ2 p-value
Sex Female 1216 82.8 51.7 (629) 10.16 0.001* 16.2 (154) 2.83 0.093
Male 253 17.2 40.7 (103)    11.5 (24)
Relationship to child/ren Parent 893 60.8 48.2 (430) 4.24 0.120 14.6 (130) 25.6 < 0.001*
Teacher only 106 7.2 44.3 (47)    4.7 (5)
Parent & teacher 161 11.0 55.9 (90)    26.7 (43)
No children 299 20.4 54.2 (162)    0
Age 18–24 169 11.5 59.8 (101) 22.27 < 0.001* 8.7 (2) 3.44 0.329
25–44 907 61.7 51.0 (463)    14.7 (115)
45–64 381 25.9 43.6 (166)    17.4 (61)
65+ 12 0.8 16.7 (2)    0
Education Primary 11 0.7 36.4 (4) 3.14 0.534 11.1 (1) 1.76 0.779
Lower secondary 10 0.7 30.0 (3)    25.0 (2)
Higher secondary 137 9.3 53.3 (73)    18.2 (18)
Bachelor degree 746 50.8 50.1 (374)    14.4 (79)
Post-graduate 565 38.5 49.2 (278)    15.8 (78)
Country of Residence Outside the UAE 400 27.2 49.0 (196) 0.15 0.697 15.6 (51) 0.02 0.882
Inside the UAE 1069 72.8 50.1 (536)    15.2 (127)
Employment Employed 927 63.1 48.8 (452) 2.00 0.372 15.6 (122) 1.08 0.583
Not employed 319 21.7 53.3 (170)    12.9 (22)
Home duties 223 15.2 49.3 (110)    16.6 (34)
Monthly Salary Other 192 13.1 46.4 (89) 5.19 0.393 15.2 (25) 9.90 0.079
less than 5000 161 11.0 55.9 (90)    12.4 (13)
5000-9999 163 11.1 54.0 (88)    20.2 (23)
10,000-19,999 282 19.2 48.9 (138)    15.8 (35)
20,000-39,000 413 28.1 49.6 (205)    18.1 (60)
40,000+ 258 17.6 47.3 (122)    9.9 (22)
Insurance Other 21 1.4 47.6 (10) 0.634 0.729 15.4 (2) 4.13 0.126
No 226 15.4 52.2 (118)    10.1 (17)
Yes 1222 83.2 49.4 (604)    16.2 (159)
Marital Status Single 287 19.5 55.7 (160) 7.27 0.064 4.2 (3) 11.9 0.008*
Married 1094 74.5 47.8 (523)    15.5 (157)
Divorced/ Separated 72 4.9 56.9 (41)    25.4 (16)
Widowed 16 1.1 50.0 (8)    14.3 (2)
Do you have children? Yes 1111 75.6 49.1 (545) 1.10 0.296    
No 358 24.4 52.2 (187)    
Number of children 1–2 children 517 35.2 49.7 (257) 4.85 0.089 16.6(80) 0.070 0.966
3–4 children 473 32.2 50.5 (239)    16.0(73)
4+ children 119 8.1 39.5 (47)    16.5(19)
Age category of children Infants and Toddlers 269 18.3 52.4 (141) 0.88 0.348 16.2 (154) 0.167 0.683
Preschoolers 325 22.1 53.8 (175) 2.69 0.101 11.5 (24) 0.085 0.770
School Age 713 48.5 50.5 (360) 0.24 0.623 14.6 (130) 5.93 0.015*
Adolescents 432 29.4 48.6 (210) 0.36 0.547 17.5 (121) 8.83 0.003*
Young Adults 254 17.3 42.5 (108) 6.56 0.010* 19.6 (81) 1.53 0.216
Children attending school Children don’t go to school 183 12.5 55.7 (102) 2.92 0.088 13.6(22) 0.45 0.502
Childcare 205 14.0 50.2 (103) 0.01 0.898 16.4 (32) 0.20 0.651
Primary 668 45.5 52.4 (350) 3.23 0.073 16.8 (109) 2.39 0.123
Lower secondary 400 27.2 49 (196) 0.15 0.697 21.4 (82) 16.2 < 0.001*
Higher Secondary 320 21.8 45.6 (146) 2.89 0.089 20.5 (63) 8.61 0.003*
University 258 17.6 42.6 (110) 6.48 0.011* 17.4 (40) 0.92 0.336
Likely to vaccinate self No 383 26.1 41.3 (158) 20.05 < 0.001*    
Yes 1050 71.5 53.2 (559)   
Likely to vaccinate children No 314 21.4 41.7 (131) 20.71 0.001*    
Yes 872 59.4 52.4 (457)   
Do you have any of the following medical Conditions (Yes) Diabetes 75 5.1 53.3 (40) 0.39 0.533    
Heart Problems 36 2.5 58.3 (21) 1.07 0.301
High Blood Pressure 133 9.1 51.9 (69) 0.25 0.620
Dyslipidemia 45 3.1 48.9 (22) 0.89 0.898
Asthma 127 8.6 62.2 (79) 8.52 0.004*
Respiratory problems 47 3.2 53.2 (25) 0.64 0.639
Cancer 9 0.6 44.4 (4) 0.75 0.746
Other medical conditions 128 8.7 50.8 (65) 0.82 0.822
Have you experienced any of the following symptoms (Yes) Headaches 381 25.9 56.7 (216) 9.69 0.002*    
Fever 105 7.1 56.2 (59) 1.83 0.176
Cough 235 16.0 51.1 (120) 0.17 0.680
Difficulty breathing 37 2.5 51.4 (19) 0.03 0.851  
Sore throat 256 17.4 59.8 (153) 12.2 < 0.001*
Myalgia 49 3.3 59.2 (29) 1.77 0.183
Dizziness 73 5.0 63 (46) 5.34 0.021*
Runny nose 225 15.3 53.8 (121) 1.66 0.198
Diarrhea 100 6.8 50 (50) 0.001 0.972
Other Symptoms 18 1.2 50 (9) < 0.001 0.988
What measures have you taken to treat your symptoms Vitamin C 720 49.0 53.5 (385) 7.49 0.006*    
Flu medications 92 6.3 53.3 (49) 0.46 0.497
Anti-inflammatory drugs 139 9.5 62.6 (87) 1.00 0.002*
Analgesics anti-pyretic 345 23.5 58.6 (202) 13.7 < 0.001*
Oral Steroids 17 1.2 58.8 (10) 0.55 0.456
Herbal remedies 443 30.2 51.2 (227) 0.51 0.477
My child/ren are up to date with their vaccines No 81 5.5 45.7 (37) 1.49 0.476    
Yes 1029 70.0 49.5 (509)   
I don’t have children 334 22.7 52.4 (175)   
Smoking No 1196 81.4 47.3 (566) 19.01 < 0.001*    
Yes 195 13.3 62.1 (121)   
I used to smoke but quit 53 3.6 64.2 (34)   
Smoke type Cigarettes 111 7.6 58.6 (65) 3.66 0.056    
Shisha 83 5.7 65.1 (54) 8.16 0.004*
Midwakh 8 0.5 50 (4) 0.01 0.992
Vaping 22 1.5 59.1 (13) 0.76 0.381
Smoking changed During COVID-19 Yes 201 13.7 58.7 (118) 7.73 0.005*    
No 1228 83.6 48.1 (591)   
Changes made to smoking Stopped/Decreased 73 5 54.4 (49) 2.80 0.422    
Started/Increased 18 1.2 14.7 (13)   
Anxiety (GAD-7) levels Minimal 447 30.4    3.9 (14) 122.19 < 0.001*
Mild 465 32.7    9.6 (35)
Moderate 296 20.2    24.5 (58)
Severe 261 17.8    35.3 (71)
Difficulty getting things done Not difficult at all 450 30.6 16.2(73) 392.41 < 0.001* 4.5 (16) 738.01 < 0.001*
Somewhat 747 50.9 55.3(413)    14.6 (87)
Very 186 12.7 88.7(165)    36.2 (55)
Extremely 86 5.9 94.2(81)    35.7 (20)
Anxiety GAD class(≥8) Mild-Minimal 737 50.2    25.4(144) 86.20 < 0.001*
High 732 49.8    5.7 (34)
SDQ class (≥5) Normal 982 84.7 43.1(423) 86.3 < 0.001*    
Abnormal 178 15.3 80.9(144)    
  1. *Significant at p < 0.05